Displaced Scholars

Bernstein – Brand

12.) Bernstein, Felix (1933-1936, 1939-1940, 1943-1945) New York University / Mathematics 

 Felix Bernstein (1878-1956) “…His father was Julius Bernstein (1839-1917) who was a leading physiologist. Julius’ father, Felix’s grandfather, was Aron Bernstein (1812-1884), a political writer, scientist, journalist, and publisher who, as a founder of the Berlin Congregation of Reform Judaism in 1845, played a major role in synagogue reform in Germany [one of Aron’s books influenced Einstein to pursue science]…he and family “managed to emigrate in 1934″, according to http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Bernstein_Felix.html, but: “When the first laws against Jewish academicians went into effect in Germany in April 1933, mathematician Felix Bernstein of the University of Göttingen was in the United States and chose to remain in New York” according to another, by me uncited and forgotten source. / Analyzed human blood groups / algebraic method to measure the frequency of gene linkages among the human population. / ‘Boas strove to find money to keep him at Columbia.’ / Bernstein stayed at Columbia University until June 1936 at which point he went to New York University / received a $4,000 salary paid in equal parts by the Emergency Committee and Rockefeller Foundation. / “He did spend a large amount of his time on social causes when in the United States and on these issues he collaborated with his long time friend Einstein. He also put a huge effort into trying to find positions for other European scientists who had been forced to flee from Europe to the United States due to Nazi policies.”

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13.) Beutler, Hans (1934-1944) U of Chicago / Physics 

 Hans Beutler b: 1896 Reichenbach (im Vogtland) d: 1945 Chicago IL 

Descendants of Aaron Beutler (formerly head of the dept at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for physical chemistry…) / Yerkes Observatory, 1892-1950: the birth, near death, and … / “Mulliken, of the Chicago Physics Department, arranged another joint symposium … The speakers included Swings and Elvey, Hans Beutler of the campus Physics …” http://books.google.com/books?id=M-m3GJzooIsC&pg=PA251&lpg=PA251&dq=%22Hans+Beutler%22+%2B+chicago&source=bl&ots=0NbXYGY10c&sig=vLFdiKCvj_1pSeHyc1Ncrl__lAY&hl=enChemistry#v=onepage&q=%22Hans%20Beutler%22%20%2B%20chicago&f=false / 1966 ROBERT S. MULLIKEN / “Chicago, Ill and (winters) Distinguished Research Professor of Chemical …… in our laboratory, under the able guidance in particular of Dr.Hans Beutler …” http://kristall.lan.krasu.ru/Science/Men/Malliken/1966_mulliken.pdf%20/ / ”Many ended up without permanent positions, such as Hans Beutler, …” / “During World War II, Mulliken served as Director of the Information Division of the Plutonium Project …… Visit, Hans Beutler, 1942. Box: 63. Folder: 16 …” / Physics Department / Council for Assisting Refugee Academics see Society for the Protection of …… Alfred Bacher; Walter Beck; Educard Bekier; Franz Bergel; Hans Beutler …” www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html Hans Beutler (13.4. 1896, Reichenbach im. Vogtland — 14.12.1942, Chicago), KWI für physi- …”and terms such as the Beutler-Fano profile of ……6. Hans Beutler (13.4.1896, Reichenbach im Vogtland — 14.12.1942, Chicago), KWI für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, wissenschaftlicher Assistent, Privatdozent an der Universität Berlin; rassistisch verfolgt, musste im Winter 1933/34 aus dem Institut ausgeschieden, Emigration in die USA 1936; Research Associate im Ryerson Physical Laboratory der University of Chicago. / 13. Strauss, Hermann geb. am 28.4.1868 in Heilbronn, jüdischer Konfession, Mitglied der DDP, nichtbeamteter a. o. Prof. (Innere Medizin), Direktor der Inneren Abteilung des Jüdischen Krankenhauses in Berlin, 1933 Entzug der Lehrbefugnis, nicht emigriert, im Juli 1942 Deportation nach Theresienstadt. Strauss starb am 17.10.1944 im KZ Theresienstadt. / Fermi suggested to Fano that, as a research project, he should try to … that had recently been observed by Hans Beutler of the University of Berlin [4]. …” / http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/sp958-lide/html/116-119.html

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14.) Bieber, Margarete (1933-1945) Columbia U, NYC / Archeology

 Margarete Bieber (1879-1978) was born in 1879 in present day Poland / in 1915, during World War I, she worked for the Red Cross in Berlin / Because she was of Jewish ancestry, the “cleansing” of the universities subjected her to a forced retirement in 1933. She sold her possessions, left Germany for Oxford, and in 1934, she traveled to the U.S. where she taught at Barnard College, before joining Columbia University’s Department of Fine Arts and Archaeology. / Bieber landed in New York on 21 September 1934 / After two years at Barnard, Bieber joined the Department of Fine Arts and Archaeology of Columbia University –– later Art History and Archaeology. 

http://www.brown.edu/Research/Breaking_Ground/results.php?d=1&first=Margarete&last=Bieber / http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/bieberm.htm / http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarete_Bieber / JOINING THE FACULTY CLUB: “Eva Lehmann Fiesel, a recognized authority on Etruscan philology who was raised as a Protestant, was hired to teach at the University of Munich on a …” www.brandeis.edu/hbi/pubs/Harriet%20Freidenreich%20Paper.doc

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15.) Biel, Erwin Reinhold (1934-1944) Rutgers “or” Chicago U / Meteorology

Erwin Biel, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., or University of Chicago Department of Meteorology” / A NEW MAP OF THE CLIMATES OF CHINA “and in Dr. Erwin Biel’s comprehensive. Weather and Climate of. China2. Some records for places in Sinkiang, provided by. ty. Chow, were also referred to. …” www.informaworld.com/index/794124293.pdf / Climatology of the Mediterranean area …. (Open Library) “last modified october 27, 2008. Go. Climatology of the Mediterranean area …. by Erwin R. Biel Published in 1944, University Press (Chicago) …” Climatology_of_the_Mediterranean_area_…./ Reviews and Notices “Meteorology, as acknowledged, but it still is Erwin Biel’s rainfall variability map of 1929, which nobody has been willing to …” www.informaworld.com/index/769312553.pdf /Plant communities of New Jersey: a study in landscape diversity “In a discussion of the climate of New Jersey, Erwin Biel describes the differences that occur in the growing …” http://books.google.com/books?id=yHnmIaudsWkC&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq=%22Erwin+Biel%22&source=bl&ots=jkwoXQvAR7&sig=iSlRRZlpbCj1QN63DQhHIgHXkKY&hl=en#v=onepage&q=%22Erwin%20Biel%22&f=false  /  “Elements of climatology and meteorology” / “In a discussion of the climate of New Jersey, Erwin Biel describes the differences that occur in …” / Meteorology, as acknowledged, but it still is Erwin Biel’s rainfall variability map of 1929, which nobody has been willing to …” www.informaworld.com/index/769312553.pdf / E GEOGRAPHY – JSTOR “… Erwin Biel presents, from his encyclopaedic knowledge of the climatic literature, numerous interesting data on the microclimates of grasslands. …”

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16.) Bier, Justus (1933-1944) Univ. of Louisville / History of Art

See full size image Justus Bier. Date born: 1899 Place born: Nürnberg, Germany Date died: 1990 Place died: Raleigh, NC

Riemenschneider scholar, professor and director of the North Carolina Museum of Art. Bier grew up in a wealthy Nuremberg family. He attended the Humanistisches Gymnasium in that city. After graduation in 1917, he fought in the first World War 1917-18. Between 1919 and 1924 Bier studied art history, archaeology, and medieval and modern history at the universities in Munich, Erlangen, Jena, Bonn and finally Zurich. His major professors were Paul Clemen (q.v.) and Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.). His dissertation, written under Wölfflin, was on the early work of his home town’s most famous artist, Tilman Riemenschneider. It was granted in 1924 and published the following year. Between 1924-1930 Bier he began publishing his magisterial book on Riemenschneider while lecturing (Dozent) at the Volkschule. He also contributed articles on modern architecture. In 1931 he married the art historian Senta Dietzel (1900-1978), whose brother was the gallery owner Max Dietzel, a sponsor of the Künstlergruppe Brücke shows and other modern art. From 1930-36 Bier was a curator of the Kestner Society and Museum in Hannover which mounted contemporary art exhibitions. Bier himself collected the work of Bauhaus artists Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer and Lyonel Feininger. In 1936 the Nazi government closed the Kestner Society and banished Bier, who was Jewish. Bier withdrew first to upper Bavaria and then, in 1937 immigrated to the United States. His former classmate, Richard Krautheimer (q.v.) recommended Bier for the position he was vacating at the University of Louisville, Kentucky. Bier taught art history there 1937-60, acting as Chair of the department 1946-60. While Chair at Louisville, he founded the Allen R. Hite Institute. He was a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, during the year 1953-54, and visiting professor at the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1956 and a Fulbright lecturer in Würzburg, 1960-61. He supplied over two hundred pieces of art criticism for the Louisville Courier Journal. In 1960, Bier was appointed to be the second director of the state art museum in North Carolina, replacing the late Wilhelm Valentiner (q.v.). He functioned as director of the North Carolina Museum of art until his retirement in 1970. His papers are housed at the University of Louisville where an endowed chair is named for him.

 Bier was a connoisseur-scholar who’s research focused principally on gothic and renaissance architecture and sculpture. He was an exponent of modern art and architecture and was friends with many Bauhaus architects (including Mies van der Rohe). http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/bierj.htm

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17.) Bloch, Felix (1933-1944) Radio Research Laboratory, Harvard / Physics

 Felix Bloch (1905-1983) Swiss–American physicist (1905–1983) Bloch was born in Zürich, Switzerland, and educated at the Federal Institute of Technology there and at the University of Leipzig, where he obtained his PhD in 1928. He taught briefly in Germany and in 1933 moved to America, via various institutions in Italy, Denmark, and Holland. In 1934 he joined the Stanford staff, remaining there until his retirement in 1971 and serving from 1936 onward as professor of physics. He also served briefly (1954–55) as first director of the international laboratory for high-energy physics in Geneva, known as CERN.

In 1946, Bloch and Edward Purcell independently introduced the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This utilizes the magnetic property of a nucleus, which will interact with an applied magnetic field such that it takes certain orientations in the field (a quantum mechanical effect known as space quantization). The different orientations have slightly different energies and a nucleus can change from one state to another by absorbing a photon of electromagnetic radiation (in the radiofrequency region of the spectrum). The technique was used initially to determine the magnetic moment (i.e. the torque felt by a magnet in a magnetic field at right angles to it) of the proton and of the neutron. It has since, however, been developed into a powerful tool for the analysis of the more complex molecules of organic chemistry. The energy states of the nucleus are affected slightly by the surrounding electrons, and the precise frequency at which a nucleus absorbs depends on its position in the molecule. In 1952 Bloch shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Purcell for this work on NMR.

Bloch worked extensively in the field of solid-state physics developing a detailed theory of the behavior of electrons in crystals and revealing much about the properties of ferromagnetic domains. http://www.answers.com/topic/felix-bloch

Felix Bloch (October 23, 1905September 10, 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S. Bloch was born in Zürich, Switzerland to Jewish parents Gustav and Agnes Bloch. He was educated there and at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, also in Zürich. Initially studying engineering he soon changed to physics. During this time he attended lectures and seminars given by Peter Debye and Hermann Weyl at ETH Zürich and Erwin Schrödinger at the neighboring University of Zürich. A fellow student in these seminars was John von Neumann. Graduating in 1927 he continued his physics studies at the University of Leipzig with Werner Heisenberg, gaining his doctorate in 1928. His doctoral thesis established the quantum theory of solids, using Bloch waves to describe the electrons.

He remained in European academia, studying with Wolfgang Pauli in Zürich, Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and Enrico Fermi in Rome before he went back to Leipzig assuming a position as privatdozent (lecturer). In 1933, immediately after Hitler came to power, he left Germany, emigrating to work at Stanford University in 1934, where he became the first professor for theoretical physics. In 1939, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. During WW II he worked on atomic energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory, before resigning to join the radar project at Harvard University.

After the war he concentrated on investigations into nuclear induction and nuclear magnetic resonance, which are the underlying principles of … In 1946 he proposed the Bloch equations which determine the time evolution of nuclear magnetization. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize for “their development of new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements.”[2] In 1954–1955, he served for one year as the first Director-General of CERN. In 1961, he was made Max Stein Professor of Physics at Stanford University. / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Bloch

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18.) Bodky, Erwin (1934-1938, 1943-1944) Longy School of Music, Cambridge, Mass. / Music

“The German-American music scholar, Erwin Bodky, was known as a child prodigy on the piano by the age of 12. His his later music education included degrees …”
www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Bodky-Erwin.htm / http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/emigre.htm  

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19.) Bohnstedt, Werner A. (1935-1936, 1940-1944) Mt. Union College, Alliance, Oh. / Sociology

Werner A. Bohnstedt, lecturer in religion” … Separator with longitudinal and transverse ribs for use in … “Inventor. Bohnstedt, Werner … Inventor: Clegg , et al.4927722Separator for starter batteries. Issued on: 05/22/1990. Inventor: Bohnstedt, et al. …” www.patentstorm.us/patents/5776630.html / NOTES PERTAINING TO ECUMENISM (ESP. BEYOND MENNONITISM), 1948-1959 … “Werner A. Bohnstedt, lecturer in religion, Michigan State College (School of Science and Arts Department of Religion) lhd, to “Gentlemen”, 31mar52, same f. …” www.mcusa-archives.org/GutenbergtoGigabytes/Archives/Schlabach_Theron_F_(HM1-544)/Electronic_Archives_ / “…associate professor,of philosophy, will be chairman of the panel. Participants will include Dr,. Werner A. Bohnstedt of Michigan State University and Dr. …” www.digitalnewspapers.libraries.psu.edu/Repository/DCG/1956/04/20/036-DCG-1956-04-20-001-SINGLE.PDF / MINUTES OF THE MEETING of the FINANCE COMMITTEE OF THE STATE BOARD … “Werner A. Bohnstedt, Professor of Humanities, with full pay from April 1, 1957 to June 19, 1957 to study and travel in Europe. : Leaves–Other. 1. Gould S. …” http://spartanhistory.kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/3/15/3-F-465-56-SEPTEMBER%2014%201956.pdf / Chicago Journals – American Journal of Sociology “Book Review. Werner A. Bohnstedt. Citation-JSTOR Articlexml. 738. Book Review. Joseph W. Eaton. Citation-JSTOR Articlexml. 739. Book Review …” www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/ajs/1965/70/6 

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20.) Bonaventura, Enzo Joseph (1939-1944) Hebrew U. / Psychology 

 <<<? “The Department of Psychology (Italy) was originally the “Experimental Psychology Laboratory” within the “Royal Institute of Superior Studies”. / The most outstanding scholar in the field of theoretical and experimental psychology was Enzo Bonaventura (1891-1948). He was the original critic of the method of introspection (“Experimental research on the illusion of introspection”, 1915) and author of notable research on the perception of time and space (“The psychological problem of time”, 1929; “The psychological problem of space”, 1961). Bonaventura directed the Laboratory from 1926-1938, but was later forced to leave Italy due to the racial laws at the time. His name is also linked to the book “Psychoanalysis” (1938), which is considered to be one of the more balanced accounts of this theory published in Italy.” / “Enzo Bonaventura, though both were Zionists before their immigration). Indeed, the Hebrew University was largely a university of immigrants …”

“Bonaventura, the director of the psychological laboratory of the University of Florence, is generally esteemed as a serious psychologist. It is the first time that a good summary of psycho-analysis—outside the sphere of psycho-analysts—comes from the pen of an Italian psychologist, who recognises this science as a very important inquiry. Bonaventura’s aim was to give the educated layman a correct conception of psycho-analysis; therefore this treatise has the advantages and the disadvantages of any exposition. It is distinguished by a clear style, by a simplified, easily intelligible representation and by a well-arranged combination of the material. All more complicated phenomena and connections, the most important problems which analysts have put to themselves and which still remain open, are naturally not mentioned. Although the author has slipped into a few inexact or slight erroneous statements, this does not however sensibly diminish the value of the book.” La Psicoanalisi: By Enzo Bonaventura; Review by E. Weiss. http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=ijp.020.0090a

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21.) Bondy, Curt (1933-1934, 1938-1944) Richmond Professional Institute (Wm. and Mary) / Education

 Curt Werner Bondy (1894, Hamburg – 1972) was a German psychologist, social educator. / Literary works: Pädagogische Problem im Jugendstrafvollzug, 1925 / Problems of Internment Camps, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1943 / Bindungslose Jugend, 1952 / ”

Bondy hielt sich zuerst in England und Holland auf; 1939 konnte er in die USA emigrieren, wo er im Bundesstaat Virginia eine Professur für Psychologie erhielt.” http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curt_Bondy (German)

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22.) Brand, Theodor von (1933-1941) Barat U. (now-defunct, DePaul U.) / Biology

“From the Stetten Museum Collection : In 1933, the Nazis dismissed 34-year old Theodor von Brand from his post at Hamburg’s Institute for Tropical and Parasitic Diseases. Von Brand had served in the German cavalry during WWI, but had not hidden his anti-Nazi views from his senior professors, some of whom were Nazi party members. Von Brand “recognized that in Germany there was not much more for me to do,” and he soon left on a quest for a place to join the new field of parasite physiology.
Von Brand found a position with a Nobel laureate at the University of Copenhagen, but soon moved to the United States, first to Johns Hopkins and then to Barat College in Lake Forest, Illinois, which was located near the Chicago stock yards. There he found ample parasites to collect for study. Moving to Washington, D.C., in 1940, he turned to investigating parasites found in fish. / Von Brand joined the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in the Laboratory of Tropical Diseases in 1947 to study the pathogenic parasite trypanosoma cruzi. At NIAID, Von Brand had free reign to set up a section on parasite physiology, and he stayed at the NIH until his retirement at age 70. He wrote two standard textbooks, – Chemical Physiology of Endoparasitic Animals (1952) and Biochemistry of Parasites (1973) and is now known as a founder of parasitic physiology. [Office of NIH History:] http://www.history.nih.gov/about/downloads/2002_summer.pdf 

 

Biochemistry and physiology of endoparasites / Theodor von Brand| “Title: Biochemistry and physiology of endoparasites / Theodor von Brand. Publication info: Amsterdam : Elsevier/North-Holland, 1979 …” / “chemistry of parasitism, Theodor von Brand, warned of the dangers of jumping …”/ MACRACANTHORHYNCHUS HIRUDINACEUS. THEODOR VON BRAND / Theodor von Brand, the late great leader in parasite physiology / Biochemistry of parasites / 1959;23;1090 Pediatrics THEODOR VON BRAND Pathogenese und ImmunologieTHEODOR VON BRAND. Pathogenese und Immunologie. Die Pränatalen Infektionen des Menschen unter Bensonderer Berücksichtigung von http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/…” / http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html

“Theodor von Brand, Judge at Labor, Dies The Washington Post | March 22, 2004 / Theodor P. von Brand, 76, an administrative law judge for the U.S. Department of Labor who ruled on whistle-blower cases concerning such issues as the rights of employees complaining of health risks in the workplace, died of cancer March 15 at his home in the Catoctin Mountains. / Judge von Brand was born in Erlangen, Germany. His father, a world- renowned biochemist, was dismissed in 1933 from his research post in Germany because of his anti-Nazi views. /The family came to the United States when he was 9. They moved to Bethesda in 1936. / Judge von Brand graduated from Gonzaga High School in …”  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-163411.html

 

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