Displaced Scholars

Cohen – Edelstein

34.) Cohen, Gustave (1941-1943) New School for Social Research (NYC) / Literature

Gustave Cohen, Belgian historian of mediaeval French literature and theatre.” In exile: While in the USA, Wahl with Gustave Cohen and backed by the Rockefeller Foundation founded a ‘university in exile’, the École Libre des Hautes Études, in New York.”


35.) Cohn, Sigmund (1933, 1938-1944) U. of Georgia / Law

Judicial Recusation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sigmund A. Cohn, University of Georgia School of Law. / Time passes and Siegel said, “In 1939, with Hitler’s successful blackmail of the Western powers and the holocaust of the six million on the horizon, a refugee of Nazi Germany, Sigmund Cohn, came to teach law at the University. He would portend a new influence on the congregation, that of faculty members of the University. For despite the fact that Athens was the home of the University of Georgia, Dr. Cohn was its first Jewish faculty member.” / Descendants of Jehuda Abeles

Sigmund Cohn Mfg. Co. Inc., 177 (1947) National Labor Relations Board, National Labor Relations Board (November 05, 1947) Docket number: 02-R-07681 http://vlex.com/vid/sigmund-cohn-mfg-co-inc-43025266 / “Because Ramazani wanted to pursue a doctorate in law, which Georgia didn’t offer, his two professors, Saye and Sigmund Cohn, recommended he pursue his interest in international law at the University of Virginia.” http://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=2878

“Sigmund Cohn began a study of the Georgia law of business associations in cooperation with the Georgia Bar Association’s committee on corporation, banking , …” A unique and fortuitous combination: an administrative history of the University of Georgia Law School… By Gwen Y. Wood http://books.google.com/books?id=bJPQsUzwaxYC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=%22Sigmund+Cohn%22+%2B+law+%2B+georgia&source=bl&ots=LnMyT52SGh&sig=94BxKJTnHEoWeRDUwqqQfFJTDLA&hl=en#v=onepage&q=%22Sigmund%20Cohn%22%20%2B%20law%20%2B%20georgia&f=false


36.) Cohn-Wiener, Ernst (1933-1934, 1938-1941) American Inst. for Iranian Art and Architecture / History of Art

Ernst Cohn-Wiener – 1882 (Tilsit, Germany)- 1941 (New York, NY) was an “eminent art historian in Berlin in the 1920’s, photographed the architecture of West Turkestan during two research exhibitions in 1924 and 1925. The British Museum acquired the Ernst Cohn-Wiener Photographic Archive from the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London in 1998 where it had been kept as part of the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum.” http://www.archnet.org/library/images/sites.jsp?select=collection&key=264

“The Warburg Institute has had an intense impact on the ideas of art historians who went to the United States from Germany. Founded in Hamburg by Aby *Warburg (1866–1929), it moved to London in 1933. Under the direction of Warburg himself and of Fritz Saxl (1890–1948), the library became a center of humanistic studies and of publications in the field of “Kulturwissenschaft.” … A year later there appeared another important work, that of the German-Jewish art historian, Ernst *Cohn-Wiener (1882–1941), Die judische Kunst: Ihre Geschichte von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (Berlin, 1929) – a serious attempt to systematically describe the development of Jewish art as it was known in those years.” http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0002_0_01381.html


37.) Conrad, Victor (1938-1945) Harvard / Meteorolgy

 Victor Conrad (1876-1972) was an AustrianAmerican physicist, seismologist and meteorologist. He was the first director of the Austrian seismological service, and a reputed academician of international accomplishment. He was politically victimized twice, in 1919 for his ethnicity and in 1934 as a socialist. He emigrated to the United States in 1938, continuing his academic career in New York, California and at Cambridge. … Conrad attended the University of Vienna where he initially studied biology. In 1896, when he started working on his degree Conrad’s teacher, the physiologist Sigmund Exner, realized his pupil’s talent for experimental work, and encouraged Conrad to take up the study of physics. Following a suggestion of Franz S. Exner he began to work on problems concerning atmospheric electricity and obtained his doctorate in 1900. … As a member of Austria’s socialist party, Conrad faced political discrimination after the brief and decisive Austrian Civil War. On April 30, 1934 he was put on leave with waiting pay. He retired in 1936, and emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he once again brought his career to bloom, 1940-1942 at New York University, then at the California Institute of Technology, the University of Chicago, and finally (since 1944) at Harvard University from where he retired in 1951. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Conrad


38.) Courant, Richard (1933-1944) NYU / Mathematics

  Richard Courant (18881972) was a German mathematician. / Courant was born in Lublinitz in the German Empire‘s Prussian Province of Silesia. During his youth, his parents had to move quite often, to Glatz, Breslau, and in 1905 to Berlin. He stayed in Breslau and entered the university there. As he found the courses not demanding enough, he continued his studies in Zürich and Göttingen. Courant eventually became David Hilbert‘s assistant in Göttingen and obtained his doctorate there in 1910. He had to fight in World War I, but he was wounded and dismissed from the military service shortly after enlisting. After the war, in 1919, he married Nerina (Nina) Runge, a daughter of the Göttingen professor for Applied Mathematics, Carl Runge. Richard continued his research in Göttingen, with a two-year period as professor in Münster. There he founded the Mathematical Institute, which he headed as director from 1928 until 1933.

Courant left Germany in 1933, earlier than many of his colleagues. While he was classified as a Jew by the Nazis, his having served as a front-line soldier exempted him from losing his position for this particular reason at the time; however, his public membership in the social-democratic left was a reason for dismissal to which no such exemption applied. / After one year in Cambridge, Courant went to New York City where he became a professor at New York University in 1936. He was given the task of founding an institute for graduate studies in mathematics, a task which he carried out very successfully. The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (as it was renamed in 1964) continues to be one of the most respected research centers in applied mathematics. /Apart from his outstanding organizational talent, Courant is well remembered for his mathematical achievements. He and David Hilbert authored the influential textbook Methods of Mathematical Physics, which is still widely used more than eighty years after it was written. He was the co-author, with Herbert Robbins, of a popularization titled What is Mathematics?, which is still in print. His name is also attached to the finite element method, later reinvented by engineers. Courant gave this a solid mathematical basis. This method is now one of the ways to solve partial differential equations numerically. Courant is a namesake of the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy condition and the Courant minimax principle.

Courant died in New York City. Richard and Nerina had four children. Ernest is a particle physicist and innovator in particle accelerators, Gertrude is a PhD biologist, Hans is a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project, and Leonore who was a professional musician. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Courant

Niels Bohr Oral History Transcript Interview with Richard Courant by Thomas S. Kuhn & M. KAC, Rockefeller Institute, NYC, 9 May 1962 http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4562.html

Before the Department of Energy There Was … the Manhattan Project – May 9, 2001 http://www.siam.org/news/news.php?id=534


39.) Dallmann, Heinz (1938-1941, 1944) 3954 Fremont St. (Chicago) / Law


40.) Dehn, Max (1933-1945)  Idaho State U. / Mathematics

 Max (Wilhelm) Dehn (1878-1952) was a German mathematician and a student of David Hilbert. He is most famous for his work in geometry, topology and geometric group theory… wrote one of the first systematic expositions of topology (1907) and later formulated important problems on group presentations, namely the word problem and the isomorphism problem … Dehn studied at Göttingen under Hilbert’s supervision obtaining his doctorate in 1900. From 1921 until 1935 he held the chair of Pure and Applied Mathematics at the University of Frankfurt but he was forced to leave his post by the Nazi regime in 1938.

In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, travelling there via Scandinavia, Russia and Japan. Once in the USA he taught at several universities and colleges, for instance at the University of Idaho in Pocatello, the Illinois Institute of Technology and St John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland. However he was unable to find a full-time position. / http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Dehn.html

In 1922 Dehn succeeded Ludwig Bieberbach at Frankfurt, where he stayed until he was forced to retire in 1935. He stayed in Germany until January 1939, when he fled to Copenhagen, and then to Trondheim, Norway, where he took a position at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. In October 1940 he left Norway for America by way of Siberia and Japan (the Atlantic crossing was considered too dangerous). / In America, Dehn obtained a position at Idaho Southern University (now Idaho State University). In 1942 he took a job at the Illinois Institute of Technology, and in 1943 he moved to St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland. Finally in 1945, he moved to Black Mountain College, where he was the only mathematician. He and his wife regularly had long breakfasts with Buckminster Fuller and his wife. / He died in Black Mountain, North Carolina in 1952. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Dehn

Max Dehn, Kurt Gödel, and the Trans-Siberian Escape Route John W. Dawson Jr. http://www.ams.org/notices/200209/fea-dawson.pdf

A Guide to the Max Dehn Papers, 1899-1979  http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/utcah/00192/cah-00192.html / 

Max Dehn (1878-1952) was a German mathematician known for his contributions to geometry, topology, group theory, and the history of mathematics. Born in Hamburg, Germany, he studied mathematics in Freiburg and Göttingen, where he earned his doctorate under the supervision of David Hilbert in 1900. In 1901, he solved Hilbert’s third problem, posed at the International Congress of Mathematicians. Dehn began his teaching career at the University of Münster in 1901, and, after teaching at several institutions, he landed at Frankfurt University (1921-1935). In 1935, the Nazis forced him to leave his post; he and his wife fled Europe for the United States in 1941. After teaching in several universities, he found a permanent position at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1945. Dehn remained at the college until he retired in 1952.


41.) Delbrück, Max (1939-1944) Vanderbilt / Physics

 Max Delbrück (19061981) was a German-American biophysicist and Nobel laureate. / He met Wolfgang Pauli and Niels Bohr, who got him interested in biology. / Delbrück went back to Berlin in 1932 as an assistant to Lise Meitner, who was collaborating with Otto Hahn on the results of irradiating uranium with neutrons. / In 1937, he moved to the United States to pursue his interests in biology, taking up research in the Biology Division at Caltech / While at Caltech Delbrück became acquainted with bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophage or ‘phage’). In 1939, he co-authored a paper called The Growth of Bacteriophage with E.L. Ellis in which they demonstrated that viruses reproduce in “one step“, rather than exponentially as cellular organisms do. / in the German Resistance against the Nazi Regime. / Delbrück remained in the US during World War II, teaching physics at Vanderbilt University in Nashville while pursuing his genetic research. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria of Indiana University demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. This research, known as the Luria-Delbrück experiment, was also significant for its use of mathematics to make quantitative predictions for the results to be expected from alternative models. For that work, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine / He also set up the institute for molecular genetics at the University of Cologne. /

Delbrück was one of the most influential people in the movement of physical scientists into biology during the 20th century. Delbrück’s thinking about the physical basis of life stimulated Erwin Schrödinger to write the highly influential book. Schrödinger’s book was an important influence on Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins who won a Nobel prize for the discovery of the DNA double helix. During the 1940s Delbrück developed a course in bacteriophage genetics at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to encourage interest in the field. Delbrück’s efforts to promote the “Phage Group” (exploring genetics by way of the viruses that infect bacteria) was important in the early development of molecular biology. On 26-27 August 2007, what would have been his 100th birthday celebration, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory hosted a meeting of Delbrück’s family members and friends to reminisce about the life and work of Delbrück. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Delbr%C3%BCck / http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1969/delbruck-bio.html 

“MAX DELBRÜCK (1906–1981) played a crucial role in getting molecular biology as we know it on its successful way. Thus, in the 1940s, after emigrating to the United States, he started a new science.” http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/177/2/673

Caltech Archives Oral Histories Online * Interview with Max Delbruck * Delbruck, Max (1979) Interview with Max Delbruck. Oral History Project, California Institute of Technology Archives, Pasadena, California. http://oralhistories.library.caltech.edu/16/

Guide to the Papers of Max Delbrück, 1918-1997 * California Institute of Technology http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt3c6010w8/

“Max Delbruck’s years at Vanderbilt” http://www.vanderbilt.edu/delbruck/ / http://www.vanderbilt.edu/delbruck/documents/Lagemann_Delbruck_Chapter.pdf

n a t i o n a l a c a d e m y o f s c i e n c e s * Max  ludwig  henning  Delbruck * 1906—1981 * A Biographical Memoir by William Hayes http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/mdelbruck.pdf

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory website: http://www.cshl.edu/


42.) Doljanski, Leonid (1937-1944) Hebrew U. / Pathology

“…Leonid Doljanski, a physician at Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, who was killed on April 13, 1948, in an Arab ambush of the ambulance in which he and other Hadassah personnel were traveling.” –from Jewish Women Archive, item on Fay Ajzenberg (nuclear physicist): http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/ajzenberg-selove-fay


43.) Drucker, Adolph B. (1938-1945) American University (D.C.) / Economics

Adolph Bertram Drucker was a lawyer – a high level civil servant in Austria-Hungary.” “Adolph Drucker promoted free trade within the empire. Abolishing internal tariff barriers among…” / Contributors to “the Nation”–“Adolph B. Drucker has had a distinguished career in major economic posts of the Austrian Civil Service and was for a time Vienna correspondent of the London…” / “Peter’s father, Adolph Drucker, was the younger of two children and also entered the civil service, rising to the senior civil servant at the Austrian …” http://www.druckersociety.at/index.php/home/commentaries/elizabeth-haas-edersheim?start=2 / “”On New Year.s Day 1950, Peter drove his father Adolph Drucker to visit Joseph Schumpeter, then in his last year of teaching at Harvard and in rapidly …” http://www.druckersociety.at/index.php/home/commentaries/peter-starbuck?start=5 / Karoline (Caroline) BONDY Born: Jul 29, 1885 in Vienna + Dr. Adolph DRUCKER Born : Aug 27, 1876 in Itzkany, Austria. Peter Ferdinand DRUCKER + Doris SCHMITZ …” freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~prohel/names/eybeschutz/eybeschutz.html

His son: Peter Ferdinand Drucker  (19092005) was a writer, management consultant, and self-described “social ecologist.” “Widely considered to be “the father of modern management / “The son of a high level civil servant in Austria-Hungary – his mother Caroline Bondi had studied medicine and his father Adolph Bertram Drucker was a lawyer, etc.” … ” 

Peter Ferdinand Drucker 1909-2005, American economist, b. Vienna, Austria. After receiving a doctorate in international and public law from Frankfurt Univ. (1931), Drucker was a financial writer for a German newspaper. In 1933 he moved to London, then to the United States (1937), where he became a freelance writer and (1943) a citizen. After teaching at New York Univ. (1950-71), he joined the faculty of Claremont Graduate Univ. (1971-2005). In 1987, Claremont named its graduate management school after him. Drucker was an authority on corporate management who was concerned with the human impact of corporate life; among his ideas in the 1970s was the shift from traditional assembly lines to flexible production methods. He also helped found (1990) the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. He wrote more than 30 books, including The End of Economic Man (1939), Future of…”


44.) Edelstein, Ludwig (1933-1944) Johns Hopkins / Philology

Ludwig Edelstein (1902-1965) was a classical scholar and historian of medicine. He left Germany in 1933, and took up an appointment at Johns Hopkins University in 1934. Subsequently he taught at the University of Washington, the University of California, and the Rockefeller Institute. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Edelstein

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