Displaced Scholars

Edinger – Förster

45.) Edinger, Tilly (1938-1944) Harvard / Paleontology

 

Encyclopedia of World Biography on Tilly Edinger 

Tilly Edinger (1897-1967) was born Johanna Gabrielle Ottelie Edinger and is recognized as a pioneer in the field of paleoneurology, which is the study of the brain through fossil remains. Her major work is titled Evolution of the Horse Brain.

Edinger applied her knowledge of neurology to the study of paleontology to determine how the brains of a species evolved. Because brains decompose, she focused on the study of the fossilized remains of the skulls and cranial cavities of many species to hypothesize that brains of any given species evolve differently based upon immediate external stimuli. Rejecting previous scientific notions from the eighteenth- and nineteenth-centuries, which asserted that evolution was a linear progression resulting in such lower animals as rodents eventually evolving into higher beings such as humans, Edinger postulated that evolution follows a complex branching process. This is a process by which different environmental factors that include climate and weather cause a species to evolve in radically different ways. In Evolution of the Horse Brain, Edinger proposed that the rate of evolution varies according to the individual lineage of any member of a particular species, and it is based upon that individual’s ability to adapt, as well as the capacity of the brain’s components to evolve new methods of interaction.

Edinger was born on November 13, 1897, in Frankfurt, Germany. Her Jewish parents were members of Germany’s upper class, and they provided her with a financially secure childhood in her hometown of Frankfurt am Main. The ready availability of money provided Edinger and her two older siblings with ample educational, travel, and leisure opportunities. Her father, Ludwig E. Edinger, was a professor of neurology at the University of Frankfurt, a respected researcher, and one of the founders of comparative neurology. He was held in such high esteem that the city of Frankfurt am Main named a street after him following his death in 1918. Edinger’s mother, Anna Goldschmidt Edinger, was a descendent of the Warburg family of bankers. Her active engagements in charity and social work resulted in the city honoring her with a bronze bust in the municipal park.

Edinger attended several universities, including schools in Heidelberg and Munich, before graduating from the Schillerschule in Frankfurt am Main. She had originally intended to study geology because she was convinced it would be easier for a woman to obtain a position in the field of zoology. Her focus was vertebrate paleontology. Edinger received her doctorate in natural philosophy from the University of Frankfurt in 1921, after her dissertation on the cranial capacity of the extinct Triassic era marine reptile Nothosaurus was accepted. Following her doctorate, Edinger pursued her interest in neurology and paleontology as a research assistant at the University of Frankfurt until 1927. Financially independent because of her family’s wealth, she accepted an unpaid position in 1927 as curator of the vertebrate collection at Frankfurt’s Senckenberg Museum. After publication of her first major work, Die fossilen gehirne (Fossil Brains) in 1929, the museum offered her a paid position.

When the Nazi party took political control of Germany in 1933, Edinger chose to remain in Frankfurt am Main. While her supervisor at the Senckenberg Museum was a member of the Nazi party, he allowed Edinger to continue her work as museum curator. In return, the supervisor requested that Edinger remove her name from her office door and vacate the building whenever there was a Nazi visitor. She worked under these circumstances until 1938, when the Nazi party increased its pressure on the German Jewish community. She applied for an exit visa in order to immigrate to the United States in 1938 but was placed on a waiting list. In May 1939, she was granted temporary permission to leave Germany. Her brother Friedrich (Fritz), however, was less fortunate and perished in the Holocaust. In addition, the Nazis removed the statue of Edinger’s mother from the municipal park and changed the name of the street bearing her father’s name. Edinger settled in London and worked as a wartime translator of medical texts. In 1941, she immigrated to the United States and accepted a tenured faculty appointment at Harvard University. Alfred Sherwood Romer, director of Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, appointed Edinger to the position of research assistant at the museum. With the exception of one year of teaching at Wellesley College, she retained her position at the museum until 1966.

Published in 1929, Edinger’s Die fossilen gehirne is considered her first major study. In this book, she argued persuasively that scientists should study fossils in order to determine the evolution of a specie’s brain. This method was in opposition to the prevailing scientific method of the previous 150 years, in which scientists used the skulls and brains of contemporaneous animals to explain the evolution of its species. Edinger argued that such a method resulted in erroneous conclusions, because each generation of species possessed its own identifying creatures incumbent upon the climate, environment, and other determining factors specific to that generation. She argued that these factors directly led to brain development changes that were unique to that generation. To prove her theory, Edinger pioneered the method of using plaster casts of the fossilized remains of animal skulls and cranial cavities. Once the cast is made, scientists can make educated guesses on the size and shape of the different components of the animal’s brain and how those components interact. Once these determinations were made, they could be compared to previous or subsequent generations of fossil remains.

Her second major work, The Evolution of the Horse Brain continued her explorations into the evolution of mammalian brains. In this work, she presented a convincing argument for the independent development of an enlarged forebrain in several species of mammal, focusing on the horse as an example. She argued that previous assumptions of linear evolution could not account for such a widespread occurrence among so many different species. She thus was able to explain how animals, including humans, developed at different rates in varying geographical locations and in different time periods based upon the lineage of the species member and the physical demands placed upon it by that location’s climate and environment.

In 1950, Edinger received a fellowship from the American Association of University Women to study fossils. Her research took her to five countries in western Europe and produced several papers on her findings. She continued her studies with the help of a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1963, her membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences led to her election as the president of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. She later earned honorary doctorates from Wellesley College and the German universities in Giessen and Frankfurt am Main. On May 26, 1967, prior to an anticipated return visit to Frankfurt, Edinger received serious injuries while walking near her home in Cambridge. Suffering a serious hearing impairment since birth that also increasingly prevented her from teaching, she did not hear the approaching automobile that eventually struck her. She died the following day. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/tilly-edinger/

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46.) Ehrenstein, Maximilian (1933-1944) U. of Pennsylvania / Chemistry

The pharmacist, chemist and food analyst Maximilian Ehrenstein prepared his doctoral thesis at the Georg-August-University Göttingen under the supervision of the later Nobel Prize winner Adolf Windaus. He has been a postdoctoral fellow with the two later Nobel Prize winners Paul Karrer at Zurich and Heinrich Wieland at Munich and worked in Berlin with Carl Mannich to obtain his habilitation for pharmaceutical chemistry. After his emigration to the United States he prepared the ground for the development of oral active progestational hormones, which finally led to the anti-baby pill by Carl Djerassi. He received the honorary doctorates from the Free University of Berlin (Dr. rer. nat. h. c.) and the University of Hamburg (Dr. med. h. c.).

The Journal of Organic Chemistry: Volume 29, Issue 2 (ACS … “XXXVI. Conversion of Pseudostrophanthidin into 19-Hydroxy-8,19-epoxycortexone and 8-Hydroxy-19-norcortexone. Tokuo Kubota, Maximilian Ehrenstein. pp 345–351 …” pubs.acs.org/toc/joceah/29/2 / “..early 1940 s by Maximilian Ehrenstein, an organic chemist in the. George S. Cox Foundation, based in the Department of Medicine. …” repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?filename=3&article=1005&context=penn_history&type=additional / “In 1944, Maximilian Ehrenstein, an emigrant from Nazi Germany, then working at the University of Pennsylvania, published an article with Willard M. Allen11 …” pt.wkhealth.com/pt/re/ajog/fulltext.00000447-200601000-00044.htm / “OBSERVATIONS ON RECENT INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MALE SEX HORMONES. Maximilian Ehrenstein, Ph.D. Bibliographic Info · PDF (494 K) · Request Permissions …” / “Maximilian Ehrenstein, Ph.D., research fellow in physiology, University of Virginia Department of Medicne, has been awarded one of the prizes of the van’t …”

–“The second crucial Penn contribution to “the pill” was made in the early 1940 s by Maximilian Ehrenstein, an organic chemist in the George S. Cox Foundation, based in the Department of Medicine. He was synthesizing derivatives of steroid hormones from the aglycone strophanthidin in order to track the physiological changes in various substituents of the steroid molecule. In one series of experiments, he removed the angular methyl group attached to carbon-l0 of the molecule. The resulting compound was 10-norprogesterone. He sent a sample of this new substance for assay to Allen, who had moved to St. Louis University. (Ehrenstein, very choosy in picking consultants, had the highest regard for those trained under George W. Corner.) Allen administered the material to rabbits and found that its progestational activity was equivalent to that of the natural progesterone. Moreover, it could be administered orally, unlike the natural substance. (Later, the Hungarian chemist Carl Djerassi showed that oral administration actually depended on the absence of the angular methyl group.) Ehrenstein published a paper describing his synthesis of lO-norprogeslerone in 1944. 26 Just then, the pharmaceutical firm financing his work notified him that it was withdrawing its support because his studies had not been productive. Thus both avenues of the medical school’s basic work on oral contraceptives closed before Penn realized the scientific, not to mention commercial, value of the work done within its walls.  / repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?filename=3&article=1005&context=penn_history&type=additional

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47.) Engel-Jánosi, Friedrich (1938-1944) Catholic U of America (D.C.) / History

Friedrich Engel-Jánosi (b. Vienna, 1893, d. Vienna, 1978), historian, 1935 and 1959-1969 worked at the University of Vienna, 1937 in Rome, 1939 in England and 1943 in Washington. / | Table of Contents | The American Historical Review, Volume 71 “Friedrich Engel-Janosi. Lettres Adressees a la Maison Rothschild de Paris Par Son Representant a Bruxelles. Reviewed by Paul D. Evans, 541 …” / http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jstor/ahr/ahr-71-2-toc.html

 French and Austrian Political Advice to Pius IX, 1846-1848 F Engel-Janosi – Catholic Historical Review, 1952 – jstor.org … Friedrich Engel-Janosi* Soon after Fran?ois Guizot, then minister of foreign affairs of France, had dispatched Pellegrino Rossi, one of Italy’s foremost … December 26, 1846. Page 3. FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI 3 … Austria and the Conclave of 1878 F Engel-Janosi – Catholic Historical Review, 1953 – jstor.org Page 1. AUSTRIA AND THE CONCLAVE OF 1878 By Friedrich Engel-Janosi* “In the presence of a more or less remote eventuality we consider … 142 Page 2. FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI 143 Rome and the Dual Monarchy joined in this move, thereby acknowl … Politics and History in the Age of the Enlightenment F Engel-Janosi – The Journal of Politics, 1943 – jstor.org Page 1. POLITICS AND HISTORY IN THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI The Catholic University of America Modern European historiography arose immediately after the stabilization of the power system, and was to become … The Rothschilds and the Austrian Loan of 1865 LD Steefel – The Journal of Modern History, 1936 – jstor.org THE ROTHSCHILDS AND THE AUSTRIAN LOAN OF 18651 LAWRENCE D. STEEFEL. THERE were,” it has been well said, “seven great powers in Europe: Austria, England, France, Prussia, Russia, Rothschild and Baring.” That the bankers were justly … Metternich: Der Staatsmann und der Mensch. Volume III, Quellenveroffentlichungen Und … F Engel-Janosi – The American Historical Review, 1955 – JSTOR Srbik: Metternich 605 outside the limits of Protestantism proper. The main threads of the narrative and of the issues are often lost sight of amidst the too extended “background” or “related” problems. German social … The Germans in History. F Engel-Janosi – The Journal of Politics, 1946 – JSTOR The Germans in History. Friedrich Engel-Janosi. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 8, No. … However stimulating Prince Loewenstein’s book may be, it certainly is not satisfactory. FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI The Catholic University of America. The Roman Question in the First Years of Benedict XV F Engel-Janosi – Catholic Historical Review, 1954 – jstor.org Page 1. THE ROMAN QUESTION IN THE FIRST YEARS OF BENEDICT XV By Friedrich Engel-Janosi* It would be a gross oversimplification to assume that Saint Pius X held no political interests or concepts. … Page 3. FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI 271 … Chateaubriand as an Historical Writer F Engel-Janosi – Catholic Historical Review, 1948 – jstor.org … Friedrich Engel-Janosi To appreciate Chateaubriand’s contribution to the field of French historical writing and thinking we must understand its backgrounds. … Page 2. 386 FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI the historical approach of the French bishop. … Reflections of Lord Action on Historical Principles F Engel-Janosi – Catholic Historical Review, 1941 – jstor.org … humain. Page 3. 168 FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI Doellinger, the historian of Munich. For Doellinger religion took … Page 5. 170 FRIEDRICH ENGEL-JANOSI must “break with established ideas, resist the current, make a new departure. … Osterreich und Europa: Festgabe fur Hugo Hantsch zum 70. Geburtstag RJ Rath – The Journal of Modern History, 1968 – JSTOR … I do wish to point out, however, that the articles by Franz Loidl, Hans Lentze, Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck, Albert EJ Hollaender, Friedrich Engel-Janosi, Rudolf Kiszling, Richard Plaschka, Reinhold Lorenz, and Wolfdieter Biehl are all … Robert Lansing’s Comments on the Pontifical Peace Note of August 1, 1917  D Zivojinovic – The Journal of American History, 1969 – jstor.org Robert Lansing’s Comments on the Pontifical Peace Note of August 1, 1917 Dragan 2¡ivojinovic i T is well known that Secretary of State Robert Lansing influenced many of the political and diplomatic actions of President … MORE

 University Professor Dr. Friedrich Engel-Janosi wrote to George Wrong in history that “owing to the political changes in Germany, I have lost my position as a professor of Modern History at the [University of Vienna] … I am not allowed to use any archives and libraries in Germany any longer. So it is impossible for me to continue my scientific work and earn my livelihood there. I ask you if there is no opening for Modern History at your University?” On standard letterhead, Janosi’s home address in Germany is crossed out. … / Not all efforts were successful. Two professors who were considered for relief – biology professor Hans Kalmus of Czechoslovakia and Professor Engel-Janosi – were, in the end, not offered support. Kalmus had secured an academic position in Montreal, and Engel-Janosi (who had written to George Wrong, above) was caught in the tangle of Canadian immigration policies and American funding agencies, and remained working in the United States. / In response to a letter from the Society regarding Engel-Janosi, on 2 December 1939, Chancellor Howard P. Whidden of McMaster University remarked that there’s “nothing here…for him…How sad these cases are” (RB, MS-31-27). http://www.erudit.org/revue/jcha/2003/v14/n1/010326ar.pdf

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48.) Epstein, Fritz (1933-1944) Library of Harvard / History

The Epstein mss., 1944-1970, consist of the correspondence, teaching files, and writings of Fritz Theodor Epstein, 1898-1979, historian.

Fritz Epstein was born in Saargemuend, Germany in 1898, received a PhD in history from the University of Berlin in 1924 and moved to London in 1933, then the United States in 1936 to escape Nazi persecution. He served as a faculty member at Harvard University, 1937-1943, worked for the U.S. State Department for a time, became Curator of the Central European and Slavic Collections at Hoover Institution, Stanford University, and in 1962 joined the faculty of Indiana University as professor and curator of the Slavic collections. Epstein retired in 1969 and returned to Germany to live.

The collection contains his correspondence with many historians, academic journals, and institutions relating to research for his own writings and on behalf of the Indiana University Libraries collections; files relating to professional meetings, organizations, and publications; materials from his teaching years at Harvard, from his State Department work, from his years at the Hoover Institution, and relating to his summer exchange courses at Hamburg University during the late 1960’s.

Correspondents in the collection include Gustave Alef, Norbert Angermann, Margret A. Boveri, Robert Francis Byrnes, Gordon Alexander Craig, Alexander Dallin, Eugene Arthur Davidson, Charles Floyd Delzell, Chester Verne Easum, Georg Eckert, Fritz Theodore Epstein, Fritz Fischer, George Fischer, Willard Allen Fletcher, Hans Wilhelm Gatzke, Jacques Grunewald, Oron James Hale, George Wolfgang Felix Hallgarten, Erwin Hoelzle, Hajo Holborn, Walther Hubatsch, Milan Ivsic, Hans Adolf Jacobsen, Barbara Brightfield Jelavich, Charles Jelavich, Yeshayahu Andrew Jelinek, Louis de Jong, Harro Kieser, Walther Kirchner, Robert Lewis Koehl, Walter Lipgens, Alma Maria Luckau, Werner Markert, Klaus Mehnert, Freidrich Meinecke, Boris Meissner, Henry Cord Meyer, Henri Jules Michel, Wolfgang Mitter, Guenther Moltmann, Charles Morley, Philip Edward Mosely, George Bernard Noble, Dagmar Horna Perman, Werner Philipp, Georg von Rauch, Kurt Rheindorf, Gotthold Rhode, Hans Rothfels, Radmila R. Savic, Hildegard Schaeder, Peter Scheibert, Otto Ernst Schüddenkopf, Klaus Schwabe, William Lawrence Shirer, John Leslie Snell, Raymond James Sontag, Bertold Spuler, Paul Robinson Sweet, Annelise Thimme, Johannes Ullrich, Klemens von Klemperer, and Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg.

The collection is arranged alphabetically in files as Epstein had them labeled. A box and folder list is available. / Transferred from Main Library, Indiana University, Bloomington. 1978 / ca. 16,500 items. http://www.indiana.edu/~liblilly/lilly/mss/html/epstein.html

Celebrating 50Years “advisor on liberated areas for the U.S. Department of State, and later ….. Two Slavic librarians came to IU in the 1960s, Fritz Epstein …” www.indiana.edu/~reeiweb/index/REEI_Commemorative2008.pdf / Zeitperspektiven: Studien zu Kultur und Gesellschaft : Beiträge … “4 Other knowledgeable and well-placed officials at the State Department seconded … By this time Fritz Epstein was installed in the Library of Congress, …” http://books.google.com/books?id=ZyQnZNd_pE4C&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=Fritz+Epstein+%2B+state+department&source=bl&ots=GTH31JPQ40&sig=iqZJh-32QMbc19aERLCHXaNwZ0Y&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Fritz%20Epstein%20%2B%20state%20department&f=false / American policy and the reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1955 “Having fled Germany in 1933, Epstein returned to postwar Berlin as an American official to gather German foreign policy documents for the State Department. …” American policy and the reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1955 By Jeffry M. Diefendorf, Axel Frohn, Hermann-Josef Rupieper http://books.google.com/books?id=8PWp1GpWdX8C&pg=PA242&lpg=PA242&dq=Fritz+Epstein+%2B+state+department&source=bl&ots=8T-aVoReZI&sig=chhffnu7QGino-djjX9tvxmkXeM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Fritz%20Epstein%20%2B%20state%20department&f=false / JSTOR: The Great Powers and Eastern Europe “… for instance, at great length, from the State Department’s publication Nazi- Soviet Relations, … Washington, D.C. FRITZ T. EPSTEIN. Washington, D.C..” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-4078(195506)8%3A2%3C301%3ATGPAEE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0 A Brief Chronology of the National Archives Captured Records Staff “On the recommendation of project supervisors Oron Hale and Fritz T. Epstein, …. He also served as a member of the State Department delegations which …” www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/articles-and-papers/symposium-papers/chronology-of-captured-records-staff.html

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49.) Ettinghausen, Richard (1933-1944) (Freer Gallery of Art) Smithsonian / History of Art

Richard Ettinghausen, 1906 (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) – 1979 (Princeton, NJ) – Historian of Islamic art. Ettinghausen received his Ph.D. from the University of Frankfurt in 1931 in Islamic history and art history. While pursuing his studies he worked, beginning at 24, on the excellent Islamic collection of the State Museum (Kaiser-Friedrich Museum) in Berlin between 1929 and 1931, under the direction of Ernst Kühnel (q.v.) and the collector/archaeologist Friedrich Sarre (q.v.). In 1934 at the assumption of power by the Nazis, he emigrated first to Britain and then to the United States where he joined the staff of Arthur Upham Pope (q.v.) at the Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology in New York. His research, which had previously focused on Egypt and Syria, increased to the Islamic art of Iran. During the 1937-38 academic year, he taught his first class at the Institute of Fine Art, New York University. The following fall he was appointed an associate professor at the University of Michigan. In 1944 Ettinghausen left Michigan to join the Freer Gallery, Department of Near Eastern Art, part of the Smithsonian Institution. The following year he married the art historian Elisabeth Sgalitzer. He also lectured at Princeton University. His 1941 lecture, “The Character of Islamic Art,” presented at the third summer seminar in Arabic and Islamic studies at Princeton University, was published in the collection The Arab Heritage. It defined succinctly the character and qualities of the genre. Nikolaus Pevsner (q.v.), editor of the Pelican History of Art, contacted Ettinghausen to write a single-volume history of all of Islamic art. In 1959, Ettinghausen secured Oleg Grabar (q.v.) to write on the architecture and he on the independent arts. Partially due to its scope and partially because of the commitments of the two men, the project developed slowly. In 1961 he was appointed chief curator of the Freer. During his tenure at the Freer, he built the collection into one of the finest collections on Islamic art in the world. In 1966 Ettinghausen left the Freer to become Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Islamic Art at the Institute of Fine Art, New York University. Together with the Middle East historian R. Bayly Winder he founded the Kevorkian Center the same year at NYU. Three years later he added the duties of Consultative Chairman of the Islamic Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. At the Metropolitan, he was instrumental in installing the galleries to their sensitive arrangement. Ettinghausen died of cancer. Grabar completed the remaining portions of Ettinghausen’s manuscript for the Pelican book, which appeared only in 1987 as The Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250, the first of two volumes envisioned. The library in the Kevorkian Center is named in Ettinghausen’s memory.

Ettinghausen published the groundbreaking early books in English on Islamic art. His major interest was in Islamic painting. His 1962 Arab Painting was translated into five languages by Skira publishers. Ettinghausen combined a knowledge of classical Greek and Roman authors to the Islamic sources made him aptly able to identify iconography, his major methodology. His 1950 book The Unicorn: Studies in Muslim Iconography, is a monumental source of iconographical information for scholars not only of Islamic studies but also for medieval western art. Both a Jew and an avid Islamicist, his ties to Israel found expression in his promotion of the establishment of a museum for Islamic art in Jerusalem. http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/ettinghausenr.htm

The art of Islam is also the field of research and teaching of Richard Ettinghausen (1906–1979), who was director of the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C., and later connected with the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0002_0_01381.html

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50.) Farkas, Ladislaus (1933-1943) Hebrew U. / Chemistry

 Ladislaus Farkas (left) and his brother Adalbert Farkas (1939)

Chemistry at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem– Historical Milestones -: The Institute of Chemistry at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem was the first of its kind to be established in the country when the University was founded in 1925. The moving spirit in establishing the Institute of Chemistry was Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the first President of the State of Israel.

The Institute of Chemistry was the first institute in the Faculty of Science and was founded (together with the Institute of Judaism) so as to emphasize the importance of natural science in general and that of chemistry in particular. After much debate on the character and form of the institute, it was decided to emphasize graduate research at the highest level and only on this basis to undertake undergraduate teaching.

It was Prof. A. Fodor who in 1924 established the institute, a year before the official opening of the Hebrew University. In due course, departments were set up, such as the Dept of Organic Chemistry, under Prof. Moshe Weizmann in 1927, and at the same time the Dept of Inorganic Chemistry, founded by Prof. M. Bobtelsky. In 1935, when the well known Prof. L. Farkas joined the Hebrew University, the Dept of Physical Chemistry was founded as well.

Among the leading proponents of the different research fields developed during the twenties and thirties of last century, many famous names can be found. To name a few: Profs. Frenkel and A.D. Bergmann in Organic Chemistry, Prof. G. Stein in Physical Chemistry, Profs. Kirson and Glazner in Inorganic Chemistry. The students, scientific grandchildren and great-grandchildren of these founding scholars are today the backbone of chemistry and its various branches at academic institutions and industry at large of the State of Israel.

“…Ladislaus Farkas (1904-1948) was professor of physical chemistry at the Hebrew University. He was killed in an air crash while on his way to the United States …”Between Budapest and Jerusalem, by Raphael Patai…” / http://books.google.com/books?id=s7NdIWBvcacC&pg=PA267&lpg=PA267&dq=%22Ladislaus+Farkas%22+%2B+hebrew+university&source=bl&ots=CbIMhH9X95&sig=Xmh3zDZmFgZ38EfbwXf-eWv26Gw&hl=en

Ladislaus (László) Farkas (10.5.1904, Dunaszerdahely, Ungarn — 31.12.1948, Flugzeugabsturz in der Nähe von Rom), KWI für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, wissenschaftlicher Assistent; rassistisch verfolgt, Kündigung im April 1933, Emigration im Oktober 1933 nach Großbritannien, 1936 Auf Einladung von Chaim Weizmann Einwanderung nach Palästina/Israel; Professor für Physikalische Chemie, Gründer und Leiter des Physikalisch-Chemischen Instituts der Hebräischen Universität Jerusalem; auch wissenschafts- und wirtschaftspolitisch erfolgreich.

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51.) Fels, Bruno (1934-1935, 1940-1942) Bureau of the Budget, Wash. D.C. / Statistics

Bruno Fels / State Dept. / 1944: “standard commodity classification, by vladimir s. kolesnikoff*, united states bureau of the budget / the united states project on standard commodity classification is sponsored by the bureau of the budget, the war production board, and the procurement divion of the us treasury board etc.” / Bruno Fels on ‘technical committee’…for list, see here: http://www.jstor.org/pss/2280322 / “Bruno Fels, nominated, at our request for a disinterested evaluation, by the Central Statistical Board of the United States government, says in his report …” Youth tell their story By Howard Mitchell Bell http://books.google.com/books?id=PQI0jmhSFdcC&pg=PP11&lpg=PP11&dq=%22bruno+fels%22&source=bl&ots=rTrT3e3qGd&sig=t7sp4373DoMmCufbHmNmeV1lwv4&hl=en#v=onepage&q=%22bruno%20fels%22&f=false

A STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION OF WORKERS “Industrial Classification, Mr. Bruno Fels. The. United States Employmnent Service was transferred to the Social Security Board by the President’s …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-7732(194005)18%3A4%3C488%3AASOAIC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23 Official register of the United States (Volume 1951) Author: United States. Bureau of the Census …Dr. Bruno Fels Chief, Classification Division Va… / Bruno M Fels  Alexandria, VA Jakobina E Fels http://collections.geneanet.org/ouvrages/index.php?action=search&book_type=livre

— “The bulk of the papers documents Paul U. Kellogg’s work as editor of the Survey magazines. It also contains extensive correspondence with family members and reflects his involvement with the various organizations, among them the American Union Against Militarism, the Committee on Industrial Relations, the Foreign Policy Association, the National Federation of Settlements, and the National Conference of Social Work.” http://discover.lib.umn.edu/cgi/f/findaid/findaid-idx?c=umfa;cc=umfa;rgn=main;view=text;didno=SW%2084

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52.) Fiedler, William / Wilhelm (1938-1941, 1944) Antioch College / Music

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53.) Fiesel, Eva Lehmann (1935-1941) Bryn Mawr / Linguistics

“Another Jewess, Eva Fiesel (nee Lehmann), …” Essays on ancient and modern Judaism By Arnaldo Momigliano, Silvia Berti http://books.google.com/books?id=FVv_bDBhWk0C&pg=PA194&lpg=PA194&dq=Eva+Lehmann+Fiesel&source=bl&ots=uuQvk872P2&sig=bqGS9PcL7ftTGq-S55Dz3D8DkeI&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Eva%20Lehmann%20Fiesel&f=false

“Even baptism did not guarantee a qualified woman of Jewish origin an academic position, however. Eva Lehmann Fiesel, a recognized authority on Etruscan philology who was raised as a Protestant, was hired to teach at the University of Munich on a temporary contract, but never received an official appointment. In fact, not a single woman was hired as a Privatdozentin in the Munich Philosophy Faculty before World War II.” – Harriet Freidenrich

Eva Fiesel geb. Lehmann (* 23. Dezember 1891 in Rostock; † 27. Mai 1937 in New York City) war eine deutsche Sprachwissenschaftlerin und Etruskulogin. / Ihr Vater Karl Lehmann war Juraprofessor und Universitätsrektor 1904/05 an der Universität Rostock, ab 1911 in Göttingen, ihre Mutter die Künstlerin und Sozialdemokratin Henni Lehmann. Ihr Bruder ist der bekannte Archäologe Karl Lehmann-Hartleben. 1915 heiratete sie den Rostocker Studienrat Dr. Ludolf Fiesel.

Ihre Promotion erfolgte 1920 in Rostock, 1931-1933 lehrte sie als Privatdozentin an der Universität München. Dort verlor sie ihre Stellung trotz einiger Proteste im Juli 1933. / 1934 folgte sie ihrem als Juden entlassenen Bruder in die USA und lehrte an der Yale-Universität und am Bryn Mawr College (Pennsylvania). Sie starb früh an Leberkrebs. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eva_Fiesel

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54.) Flechtheim, Ossip Kurt (1939-1944) Bates College, Lewiston, Me. / Political Science

  Ossip Kurt Flechtheim (1909-1998) * Office of the US Chief of Counsel for War Crimes (OCCWC) [<-?->] Prosecution team at Nuremberg.

Guide to the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee … “12 Feb 2007 … Individuals of note whose case files may be found in this collection include: Ossip Flechtheim, Babette Gross, Kurt Grossmann, …” findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=121489 ” Individuals of note whose case files may be found in this collection include: Ossip Flechtheim, Babette Gross, Kurt Grossmann, Albert Grzesinski, Erich Kaestner, Alfred Kerr, Hermann Kesten, Siegfried Kracauer, Karl Meinhard, Franz Oppenheim, Wolfgang Panowsky, Joachim Prinz, Kurt Rosenfeld, Hans-Joachim Schoeps, Leopold Schwarzschild, Toni Sender, Kurt Singer, Heinrich Stahl, Friedrich Stampfer, and Bruno Weil.” / Civilization’s Decay and An Unusual Biosphere Limit State “That aside, it is a creditable proper historical fact, honor of priority, that Ossip Kurt Flechtheim (1909-1998) coined the term “futurology”, …” http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/photosynthetic_Cathcart.html Aufruf der LDPD vom 5 “Germany, July 5, 1945], reprinted in Ossip Kurt Flechtheim, Die Parteien der Bundesrepublik. Deutschland [The Parties of the Federal Republic of Germany]. …” germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/Parties%20SZ%202_ENG.pdf

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ossip_K._Flechtheim (German)

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55.) Förster, Max (1934-1935, 1939-1940) Yale / Philology

Max Förster (1869- 1954). “… written by Max Forster (1869—1954) in 1919 (Die Beou’ulf-Handschrift). … of the most amazing feats of nineteenth-century Germanic philology’ (1991: 7) …” … “Max Forster is perhaps the last of the great university professors of … interest was philology: comparative grammar and English and the German…” … “philologist may be at his best as he gets on towards his eightieth year. That Professor Max Forster may live up to the example which his pre- decessors have …” http://www.jstor.org/pss/3716199

(10.5.1904, Dunaszerdahely, Ungarn — 31.12.1948, Flugzeugabsturz in der Nähe von Rom), KWI für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, wissenschaftlicher Assistent; rassistisch verfolgt, Kündigung im April 1933, Emigration im Oktober 1933 nach Großbritannien, 1936 Auf Einladung von Chaim Weizmann Einwanderung nach Palästina/Israel; Professor für Physikalische Chemie, Gründer und Leiter des Physikalisch-Chemischen Instituts der Hebräischen Universität Jerusalem; auch wissenschafts- und wirtschaftspolitisch erfolgreich.

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