Displaced Scholars

Guttmann – Hartner

89.) Guttmann, Julius (1933-1942) Hebrew U. / Philosophy

Julius Guttmann (Hebrew: יוליוס גוטמן), born Yitzchak Guttmann (1880, Hildesheim1950, Jerusalem) was a German-born rabbi, Jewish theologian, and philosopher of religion. / Julius was born to Rabbi Jakob Guttmann (1845-1919) while Jakob served as Chief Rabbi at Hildesheim during the years 1874-1892, when Hildesheim still had a large Jewish population. Jakob himself published papers on a number of philosophical topics. The family moved to Breslau in 1880. / Julius received his basic training at the Breslau Rabbinical Seminary and the University of Breslau. He was Lecturer at Breslau from 1910-1919, and Lecturer at the Hochschule for the Academic Study of Judaism (The Reform Seminary) in Berlin from 1919-1934. At that time, he became Professor of Jewish Philosophy at Hebrew University, a position which he held until his death.

Guttmann is best known for Die Philosophie des Judentums (Reinhardt, 1933), translations of which are available in Hebrew, Spanish, English, Japanese, etc. The English title is Philosophies of Judaism: The History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical Times to Franz Rosenzweig (New York, 1964). The unusual plural “Philosophies” in the book’s title is not a translation glitch, but rather reflects the book’s attitude toward the diversity of Jewish thought and Jewish thinkers; there is not a singular “Jewish philosophy.” / Roth (1962/1999) sees in this publication “the last product in the direct line of the authentic Judaeo-German ‘Science of Judaism’,” more commonly known as Wissenschaft des Judentums. While that movement did not utterly expire with the publication Guttman’s work—its spirit living on in the work of G. Scholem and H.A. Wolfson among many others—it is certainly the case that the Wissenschaft movement in Germany had by the 1930’s already ceased to thrive. / The original German edition of Philosophie des Judentums ends with Hermann Cohen, the primary influence on Guttman’s own philosophy, while the later Hebrew edition includes Franz Rosenzweig. It is also notable that Guttman’s work excludes major thinkers of the Kabbalistic school, which reflects his own attitude toward Jewish philosophy (Werblowsky 1964). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Guttmann


90.) Haas, Fritz (1934-1944) Chicago Museum of Natural History / Zoology

 Fritz Haas (1886-1969) Born: Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany /Died: Chicago, Illinois / Occupation: Malacologist. Keeper of Invertebrate Zoology, Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany, 1911-36 (forced removal by the Nazis 30 June 1936); Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 1938-1959 / Education: Ph.D. Heidelberg. Received his training in biology through herpetolgist and malacologist Oscar Böttger and malacologist Wilhelm Kobelt / Research Interests: Unionacea, freshwater and landsnails / Travels: Norway 1910; Pyrenees, Spain, France 1914-19 (in exile); southern Africa 1931-32 (as a member of the Schomburgk expedition); Brazil 1937; Bermuda, Cuba, Canada / Remarks: President of AMU 1950. Married Helene Ganz 30 March 1922. Fritz Haas was one the giants in the study of unionids worldwide and his monumental publication “Superfamilia Unionacea. 1969. Das Tierreich (Berlin) 88:x + 663 pp.” is a required reference for this group / Data from: Abbott, R.T., and M.E. Young (eds.). 1973. American Malacologists: A national register of professional and amateur malacologists and private shell collectors and biographies of early American mollusk workers born between 1618 and 1900. American Malacologists, Falls Church, Virginia. Consolidated/Drake Press, Philadelphia. 494 pp. / Other References: Solem, A. 1967. The two careers of Fritz Haas. Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History 38(11):2-5. / Solem, A. 1967. New molluscan taxa and scientific writings of Fritz Haas. Fieldiana Zoology 53(2):71-144. / Solem, A. 1970. Dr. Fritz Haas, former curator dies. Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History 41(2):12. / Solem, A. 1970. Fritz Haas, 1886-1969. Nautilus 83(4):117-120. http://wapedia.mobi/en/Fritz_Haas_(zoologist) / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Haas_(zoologist) / 

Fritz Haas “Fritz Haas was one the giants in the study of unionids worldwide and his monumental publication “Superfamilia Unionacea. 1969. Das Tierreich (Berlin) 88: x + …” http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~ksc/Malacologists/HaasF.html


91.) Haas, Otto H. (1938-1944) American Museum of Natural History / Paleontology

Otto Henry Haas, b. 1887. Zoology and Palaeontology / [Cephalopod papers] – Otto H. Haas collection (1900) http://www.archive.org/details/cephalopodpapers00haasrich / 

Group photograph from 1947 Princeton conference on “Genetics … “Otto Maria Heinrich Haas (65) Charles Mitchill Bogert (66) Benjamin Franklin Howell …… a Committee on Common Problems in Genetics and Paleontology.29 …” http://www.jstor.org/stable/235551 Board of Regents’ Meeting Minutes – October 8-9, 1966 “Dr. Otto H. Haas, Curator of Paleontology, Department of Geology-Geography, Mackay School of Mines, leave with pay from September 28 to October 18, …” system.nevada.edu/Board-of-R/Meetings/Minutes/1960/1966/19661008.htm_cvt.htm


92.) Haas, William S. (1933-1934, 1939-1944) Iranian Institute (NYC) / Sociology and Anthropology


William S. Haas / “IV. Center of Creation, Radiation, and Mediation William S. Haas 21 V Hebrew” –Full text of “Background Of The Middle East” (edited by Ernest Jackh) http://www.archive.org/stream/backgroundofthem008141mbp/backgroundofthem008141mbp_djvu.txt

Iran .. by William S. Haas at Questia Online Library “Book by William S. Haas; Columbia University Press, 1946. Subjects: Iran, Iran– Civilization …interlaced with the fate of humanity as Iran. …” http://www.questia.com/library/book/iran-by-william-s-haas.jsp The Destiny of the Mind: East and West by William S Haas from … “New York: Macmillan Company. 1956. 327p., original grey cloth. … – The Destiny of the Mind: East and West – William S Haas – Used Books.” http://www.abaa.org/books/50065136.html


93.) Hadamard, Jacques (1941-1944) Columbia U, NYC / Mathematics

 Jacques Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963) was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex function theory, differential geometry and partial differential equations. / After the Dreyfus affair, which involved him personally because his wife was related to Dreyfus, Hadamard became politically active and a staunch supporter of Jewish causes though he professed to be an atheist in his religion / when France fell in 1940, Hadamard and his family escaped to the United States where he was appointed to a visiting position at Columbia University. However, he failed to find a permanent post in America and in 1944…left the United States. / After the War he became an active peace campaigner and it required the strong support of mathematicians in the USA to allow him to enter the country for the International Congress in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1950. He was made honorary president of the Congress. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Hadamard.html / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Hadamard / http://www.biographybase.com/biography/Hadamard_Jacques.html 


94.) Halberstaedter, Ludwig (1934-1942) Hebrew U. / Radiology

Ludwig Halberstaedter – German radiologist, born 1876, Beuthen, Oberschlesien; died 1949, New York. / Ludwig Halberstädter obtained his doctorate in 1901 in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). From 1901 to 1907 he worked at the surgical clinic in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) under Carl Garré (1857-1928) and then dermatology with Albert Neisser (1855-1916) in Breslau. He was habilitated for dermatology and radiation therapy in Berlin in 1922 and in 1926 became “nicht beamtlicher ausserordentlicher Professor”. / His interest in irradiation resulted in studies on its effects on lower forms of life and on tissues and cells. He became director of the Radiation Department at the Institute for Cancer Research, Berlin-Dahlem and used thorium in an effort to treat cancer. Halberstädter demonstrated sensitivity of the ovary to irradiation in 1904.

In 1907 he was a member of the research expedition on syphilis which went to Java under Albert Neisser’s direction. / After 1933 he was one of 276 Jewish dermatologists who were able to leave Nazi Germany. He settled in Palestine that year and became director of radiation therapy at the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem. He brought with him a tiny amount of radium and opened the first radium and X-ray institute in the Middle East. Working together with cytologist Dr. Leonid Doljansky, he was able to provide the first treatment for cancer in the country. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/3228.html


95.) Hallgarten, Wolfgang (1934-1944) “In Armed Forces” / History

George W. F. Hallgarten, or Georg(e) Wolfgang Felix Hallgarten (1901, München1975, Washington D.C.) was a German-born American historian. / He had a US citizenship since his grandfather. / He was taught by Max Weber in the University of Munich. In 1933, He moved to Paris to flee the Nazis. / (1901– 1975) Social Foundations of World War Strategy by Wolfgang Hallgarten of the University of California, Berkeley. / As far as I know, Gerhard Masur, Fritz Epstein, and George Wolfgang Hallgarten were willing to go back to Germany but could not find a satisfactory tenured position / “Munich-born George Wolfgang Hallgarten was a close friend of Eckart Kehr and quite as convincingly leftist. A young man of inherited wealth, …” / “…after his arrival in US in 1937, friendship w/ Charles Beard and marriage into an established family, he could never enter into the historical profession as a regularly tenured scholar.” 

Register of the George Wolfgang Felix Hallgarten Papers, 1874-1975 * Correspondence, diaries, speeches and writings, photocopies of government documents, propaganda leaflets, and printed matter, relating to European diplomacy, imperialism, psychology of national socialism and totalitarianism, U.S. and German propaganda during World War II, and the arms race, 1870-1970. Includes drafts of a study by G. W. F. Hallgarten, entitled Imperialismus vor 1914. http://content.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/view;jsessionid=S79Sc0hLB2fxhi4c?docId=tf28700243&query=&brand=default

Nazi Refugee turned Gestapo spy – the Life of Hans Wesemann http://books.google.com/books?id=30DXQLPZpW0C&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=Wolfgang+Hallgarten&source=bl&ots=RHuPUuWMN2&sig=AJ04NVajGLgvAdSmfp3d6Rxrm-U&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Wolfgang%20Hallgarten&f=true

His father was Lazarus Hallgarten and his mother was Eleonore Hallgarten (born Darmstädter, in Mannheim).* [*Charles Hallgarten, or Charles/Karl Lazarus Hallgarten (1838, Mainz1908, Frankfurt/Main) was a German banker and “philanthropist.”] *?

This paper is a revised version of a lecture which Dr. Hallgarten gave at the University of Tokyo and elsewhere towards the end of 1965. The author had been well known to Japanese academic circles for his Vorkrisgsimperial-ismus (Paris, 1935) and Imperialismus vor 1914 (2nd ed.; München, 1963) and much interest was shown in this lecture, both because in combination with the above works it provided a systematic overall view of Dr. Hallgarten’s studies of imperialism, and because the author is one of the last pupils of Max Weber. A Japanese translation of the lecture has been published in an authoritative Japanese journal; Shisō, No. 499 (January, 1966).

BIOGRAPHICAL FILE, 1936-1975 * Box 1 Biographical sketches and lists of publications, arranged chronologically Hallgarten family circle. Newspaper clippings and notices, arranged chronologically Hallgarten in Paris, 1935. Reference in book by Maximilian Scheer, So war es in Paris. Photocopy Letters of reference, 1936-1939. Mimeographed copies Announcements for public lectures, 1939-1958, arranged chronologically. Printed copies Letter of appreciation from General Telford Taylor for Hallgarten’s assistance in Nuernberg Trials. Conveyed by Col. Edward H. Young, July 22, 1947 Washington Research Consultants, 1955. Professional announcements. Printed copies Letters to Mrs. George W. F. Hallgarten, sent while on lecture tour sponsored by the University of Minnesota, February 14 to May 13, 1956.

Memorabilia of Minnesota lecture tour, 1956 Lecture tour of Germany 1958-1959. Newspaper announcements, invitations, schedule, arranged chronologically Lecture tour of India, November 1965. Correspondence and itinerary Lecture tour of Japan, November -December 1965. Schedules, invitations, and miscellaneous papers Miscellany. Typescript notes

“My own academic training and scholarship continues the project of placing history written in Japan by Japanese scholars into a broader, transnational context. In the late 1950s, I had a chance to study in the United States under Dr. George W. F. Hallgarten, himself an outsider known as a foremost expert in the study of imperialism. I have been studying the history of labor and socialist movements before and after World War I, and through my research I have tried to build connections with experts from various nations. In addition, I was long responsible for the Japanese National Committee of the International Congress of Historical Sciences (Comité International des Sciences Historiques, or CISH). The next CISH congress will be, etc.” http://rhr.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/2005/91/110.pdf


96.) Hamburger, Ludwig (1940-1944) Brookings Inst. / Economics

Law and Anthropology “owes much to the Thai studies of the sociologist of law Ludwig Hamburger. …… Russia, Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research und Brookings …” works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=wolfgang_fikentscher Wolfgang Fikentscher “The Journal of Reprints for Antitrust Law and Economics, No.2565ff. (1979) ….. Russia, Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research und Brookings ….. Erinnerungen an den Rechtssoziologen Ludwig Hamburger, Festschrift für Andreas …” http://www.ip.mpg.de/shared/data/pdf/fikentscher_1952-2006.pdf / “How Nazi Germany Has Controlled Business: Amazon.co.uk: Ludwig Hamburger…

diff.: Hans Ludwig Hamburger (1889, Berlin1956 Cologne) was a German mathematician. He was a professor at universities in Berlin, Cologne and Ankara. etc. http://www.answers.com/topic/hans-hamburger


97.) Hamburger, Viktor (1933-1935, 1939-1941, 1944) Washington U. (St. Louis, Mo.) / Zoology

 Viktor Hamburger (19002001) was a German professor and embryologist. Hamburger lectured, among others, Nobel Prize-winning neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909 – ), who identified nerve growth factor along with Hamburger when they collaborated. Hamburger retired from his professor position in 1969 and continued researching until the 1980s. / In the 1960s, Hamburger did embryological work to get at the question of what comes first, sensation or movement, a chicken and egg problem to be sure. –wik / …found at AAC as a “biologist”. / In September of 1946, Levi-Montalcini accepted an invitation to Washington University in St. Louis, under the supervision of Professor Viktor Hamburger.

Born in a small town in Silesia, Germany, Viktor Hamburger attended the Universities of Breslau, Heidelberg, Munich and Freiburg. At the University of Freiburg, he studied with the renowned biologist, Hans Spemann, Nobel Laureate. Professor Hamburger earned his doctoral degree in zoology (experimental embryology) at the University of Freiburg in 1925. The recipient of a Rockefeller Fellowship in 1932, Professor Hamburger came to the United States to study at the University of Chicago with Dr. Frank R. Lillie. In 1935 he joined the faculty of Washington University. Dr. Hamburger is known for his pioneering work in experimental embryology, neuroembryology and the study of programmed cell death, and his work on NGF with Rita Levi-Montalcine and Stanley Cohen. During his tenure at this Washington University, he served as Chairman of the Department of Zoology from 1941-1966. Professor Hamburger was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Sigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa. Though he retired as professor emeritus in 1969, Dr. Hamburger continued his research until the mid-1980s. He passed away in 2001, just a few weeks short of his 101st birthday. http://neuroscience.wustl.edu/events/Hamburger.html

Viktor Hamburger was born in Landeshut, Silesia (now a part of Poland, but then a province of Germany). Although his father was a businessman, much of Hamburger’s youth was spent in a rural setting where his interest in biology was encouraged by teachers and a friend, who was later a leading taxonomist at the Berlin Museum of Natural History. He attended the Universities of Breslau, Heidelberg, Munich, and Freiburg and received his Ph.D. in zoology under the supervision of H. Spemann in 1925. He then took a post as a research associate at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in the laboratory of 0. Mangold and, after two years, became a privatdozent and instructor at the Zoological Institute of the University of Freiburg).

In 1932, Hamburger received a yearlong Rockefeller fellowship to work in F. R. Lillie’s laboratory at the University of Chicago, one of the few laboratories in the world then studying the embryology of the chick; his purpose was to apply Spemann’s microsurgical methods to the chick embryo. When he arrived in Chicago in 1932, his intention was to stay only a year. However, the rise of the Nazi party in early 1933 resulted in a letter from the dean of the faculty at the University of Freiburg informing Hamburger that, due to “the cleansing of the professions,” he had been dismissed from his position in Germany. Thus, he stayed on as a Rockefeller fellow at the University of Chicago until 1935, when he was appointed to the zoology faculty at Washington University in St. Louis, where he has remained.

Hamburger’s research proceeded along four different but related lines. The first of these, fundamental to the other three, was his classic study of the normal development of the chick embryo. “Our real teacher,” Hamburger said, “has been and still is the embryo-who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right” (Holtfreter, 1968). Because of Hamburger’s work, this preparation now provides the standard for much vertebrate neuroembryology; the staged series published with H. Hamilton (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951), which summarizes the major developmental landmarks of the chick, is one of the most cited papers in the biological literature.

The second avenue of Hamburger’s work, and perhaps the most important, concerned the discovery and elucidation of neuronal death in normal embryonic development. A number of earlier investigators had noted that removal of a peripheral target-for example, the limb bud in a tadpole or a chick embryo-resulted in developmental failure of the related nerve centers. Hamburger, with his colleague R. Levi-Montalcini, showed that normal nerve cell death is also dictated by the peripheral target. These studies on normally occurring neuronal death in the chick embryo form the basis for present thinking about competitive processes in the nervous system.

The third line of Hamburger’s research was his discovery with Levi-Montalcini in the late 1940s and early 1950s of the protein nerve growth factor (Levi-Montalcini and Hamburger, 1951). Since the 1950s, work in numerous laboratories has characterized the nerve growth factor molecule and established a good understanding of its biological significance.

The final line of Hamburger’s research concerned the development of behavior. Using his knowledge of the normal development of the chick embryo, Hamburger explored the earliest stages of embryonic motor activity in a series of experiments carried out in the 1960s. Contrary to the view widely held by behavioral psychologists, he showed that the earliest movements of embryos are independent of sensory stimulation (Hamburger et al., 1966).

To a remarkable degree, Hamburger’s work has set the course of developmental neuroembryology in this century. However, only in the last decade or so have neurobiologists (as distinguished from embryologists) recognized the fundamental significance of his contributions. http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?ch=13&id=146

“Our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right.” Viktor Hamburger Viktor Hamburger died June 12, 2001, one month shy of his 101st birthday. Born in Landeshut, Silesia (then part of Germany; now within Poland), Viktor grew up with a passion for outdoor activities, especially observing and collecting insects and larvae in the fields and ponds near the family home. Following training in Zoology at Breslau, Heidelberg, and Munich, Viktor became a graduate student in the laboratory of Hans Spemann at Freiburg, during the period when the organizer was discovered and concepts of tissue interaction and cell determination were having their initial bloom.

Following post-doctorates in Göttingham and Berlin-Dahlem, then an instructorship back at Freiburg, Viktor accepted a Rockefeller Fellowship to study in Frank Lillie’s lab at Chicago, bringing the precepts and methods of experimental embryology to a lab in which the chick embryo was atop the pecking order. Due to political changes in his homeland, in 1935 Viktor began a nearly 50-year tenure at Washington University in St. Louis, including 25 years as chairman of the Zoology Department. He also participated for many years in the Embryology Course at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, continuing the fondness for comparative embryology developed earlier. His Manual of Experimental Embryology, first published in 1942, demystified accessing and manipulating early embryos for several generations of students.

While embracing the methods of experimental embryology, which combine an analytical approach with the aesthetic appeal of directly engaging the living embryo, it was applications of these methods to problems of the developing nervous system that most captivated Viktor and set the directions he would actively pursue throughout his career. Viktor’s early studies on redirected axon outgrowth led him to postulate that trophic factors released by nerves and target tissues are necessary for the proper development of both. His subsequent studies showing that motor neuron survival was dependent upon the amount of target tissue available furthered this belief. During these studies involving chick wing transplantations or extirpations, Viktor discovered that up to 60% of developing motor neurons die in normal embryos. This discovery of programmed cell death, which is a critical component of most developing tissues, has recently emerged as a major focus in biomedical research.

Viktor’s interests in nerve-target interactions led to, among others, his deep admiration for and friendship with Ross Harrison, whose frequent visits to Freiburg had been a source of much inspiration during Viktor’s student days. Shortly after the World War II, Viktor invited Rita Levi-Montalcini to join him at Washington University and investigate what seemed to be substantial differences in trophic effects on embryonic sensory and motor neurons. This collaboration led to the first identification of a developmental growth factor, Nerve Growth Factor, which is essential for the differentiation and survival of many sensory and sympathetic (but not motor) neurons. Viktor certainly appreciated the irony that decades of unsuccessful attempts to isolate the chemical nature of Spemann’s Organizer were eclipsed by this discovery of a neuron-specific trophic factor. Today, hundreds of growth factors acting often in concert are known to modulate cell phenotype in embryonic and adult tissues, and several of Viktor’s early NGF collaborators shared in receiving the Nobel Prize in 1986.

Viktor, however, turned his attention to functional aspects of neurogenesis, investigating the interactions necessary for the orderly development of embryonic motility and patterns of limb movement. His goal was to dissect those network components that come into play independent of inputs from those requiring functional feedback. He and his colleagues isolated parts of the embryonic nervous system and found that most behavior-generating neuronal networks develop normally. As always it was the chick embryo that served as model system. Indeed, it is because of the stage series of chick development he and Howard Hamilton devised in the early 1950’s that Hamburger’s name is most widely known among students of vertebrate development.

Though best known for his work in experimental embryology and neuroembryology, Viktor’s interests and life perspectives were very much a melding of natural sciences with philosophy, literature and the arts. His publication topics range from color changes in fish during their mating season to the geology of Silesia, from mechanistic explanations of human birth defects (in the 1930’s) to analyses of the influence of vitalism on early embryologists. The Heritage of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer (1988) brings to the current generations a sense of the excitement and uncertainties present during this early period of discovery, illuminating the personalities and conceptual perspectives of key researchers involved.

Viktor touched all who knew him by his wisdom, dignity, generosity and kindness. He had little patience for imprecision of thought or language, in science and also other endeavors, but taught always by example rather than criticism. In his presence events seemed more purposeful and disciplined, yet his conversations betrayed a wonderful, often playful sense of humor. Viktor knew and worked with many of the founders of experimental embryology during the first half of the 20th century, but did not dwell upon this past with nostalgia. Rather, he taught that the ideas enabling great accomplishments in science are timeless, and we who practice – or are learning to practice – developmental biology today benefit by understanding not only what our predecessors accomplished but also why and how they did so.

A full description of the life, publications, and many awards of Viktor Hamburger is available through the Washington University Library web site (http://library.wustl.edu/units/biology/vh/). Portrait photo above courtesy of Washington University archives. Stage 21 (4-day) chick embryo above from “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo.” J. Morph. 88:49-92 (1951).

Drew M. Noden * Professor of Embryology and Animal Development * Department of Biomedical Sciences * College of Veterinary Medicine * Cornell University * Ithaca, NY 14853-6401 http://www.sdbonline.org/archive/SDBMembership/hamburger-obit.html


98.) Hanc, Joseph / Josef (1939-1944) Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Medford, Mass.) / Government Service

“Josef Hanc, Minister Plenipotentiary, Czechoslovak Embassy, Washington, Alternate. Jindrich Hoffmann, Head of Czechoslovak Office for Relief and …” / CZECHOSLOVAKIA Rudolf Kuraz, Czechoslovak Consul General in New York, Representative Josef Hanc, Minister Plenipotentiary, Czechoslovak Embassy, Washington, Alternate Jindrich Hoffmann, Head of Czechoslovak Office for Relief and Rehabilitation, Washington, Adviser Looted Art Commission – Bretton Woods “Josef Hanc, Director of the Czechoslovak Economic Service in the United States of America Ervin Hexner, Professor of Economics and Political Science, …” http://www.lootedartcommission.com/bretton-woods Freemasonry in the Eastern Hemisphere “During this period, Brother Joseph Hanc was named Minister Plenipotentiary of Czechoslovakia to the United States. But these conditions were not to continue …” books.google.com/books?id=OcxSjYDEMqYC&pg=PA221&lpg=PA221 &dq=Joseph+Hanc&source=bl&ots=V0ppM1h6kn&sig=fikDxQOntuqU8r7ubFIXKbrnM0Q&hl=en Eastern Europe / Josef Hanc | National Library of Australia “Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Hanc, Josef, 1895-; Format: Book; 272 p. : fold. map ; 22 cm.” catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2349800 Eastern Europe / Josef Hanc London : Museum Press, 1943. 272 p. : fold. map ; 22 cm. Notes Includes index. Bibliography: p. 265-268 / Eastern Europe and the United States, by Josef Hanc Boston, World peace foundation, 1942. / vi, 7-95 p. 20 cm. Series America looks ahead; a pamphlet series, no. 7 America looks ahead ; no. 7. / “Josef Hanc. Tornado Across Eastern Europe: The Path of Nazi Destruction Tornado Across Eastern Europe: The Path of Nazi Destruction Josef Hanc …” / “Josef Hanc. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. … JOSEF HANC Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Medford, Mass. …” “Josef Hanc: SIMUTIS, ANICETAS. The Economic Re construction of Lithuania After 1918. Pp. xiii, 148. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. $1.50 …” More by this author Hanc, Josef, 1895- Subjects World War, 1939-1945 Europe — History — 1918-1945 Europe — Politics and government — 1918-1945 / Full text of “United Nations Monetary Fenational Conference” “Josef Hanc, Director of the Czechoslovak Economic Service in the United States of America. Ervin Hexner, Professor of Economics and Political Science, …” http://www.archive.org/stream/unitednationsmon033360mbp/unitednationsmon033360mbp_djvu.txt Czech Republic Backed Korea’s Independence ““After the first meeting, Gajda sent a Czech solider named Josef Hanc with Yeo so that the Korean could travel back safely to Shanghai. …” http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2009/07/116_40404.html / “… general Gajda, worried about his safety, put at his disposal an armored train and sent another Czech ― Josef Hanc ― to accompany him back to Shanghai. …” http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/opinon/2009/03/172_41092.html / Brooklyn Museum: Exhibition of the Arts of Czechoslovakia “Dr. Josef Hanc, Czechoslovakian Consul Mrs. Josef Hanc Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Blum Mr. and Mrs. Philip N. Youtz Mr. Abram Bastow Miss Margaret Bastow …” http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/exhibitions/697/ Czech Republic “March 3, 1948 Josef Hanc, Charge d’Affaires a.i.. June 14, 1948 Dr. Vladimir Outrata, Appt. Amb. E. and P. June 21, 1948 Amb. E. and P. …” http://www.state.gov/s/cpr/91601.htm / March 3, 1948 Josef Hanc, Charge d’Affaires a.i. / ALUMNI NEW “beginning February 16, when Josef Hanc,. Czechoslovakian Consul to the United. States, will speak at the Cosmopolitan. Club. On the next Sunday, …” dspace.library.cornell.edu:8080/bitstream/1813/3553/19/038_17.pdf Copyright 2008 J. David Goldin “Josef Hanc (Director of The Czechoslovak Economic Service) and Dr. … Lawrence Gould (moderator), Robert Valeur, Josef Hanc, Jan-Albert Goris. 14:46. …” radiogoldindex.com/cgi-local/p3.cgi?ArtistName=Hanc,+Josef&ArtistNumber=22855 MORAVIAN ARCHIVES The Conference of Spiritual Descendants of John Hus “Fries, Miss A. L. 3. Gapp, S.H.. Greenfield, John. 4. Hamilton, K. G. Hanc, Josef. Hansen, R. F. Heath, Geo. R. Havlik, Josesh. Hegar, Joseph. Heger, Julius …” http://www.moravianchurcharchives.org/inventories/Spiritual%20Descendants%20Hus.pdf The New Presence October 1997 “My father was born in Prague in 1925; my grandfather, Josef Hanc, was a diplomat in the short-lived Czechoslovak democracy under President Tomáš Masaryk …” Full text of “Dramatized sermons [microform] the new homiletic” “Among these were the following: Dr. Josef Hanc, Czechoslovakian Consul-General in the U.S., on The Central European Situation; Dr. Harry F. Ward of Union …” http://www.archive.org/stream/MN41773ucmf_0/MN41773ucmf_0_djvu.txt Suchergebnisse “Leo Gross by Josef Hanc, Dec. 1942 on title page. Hanc: Czech diplomat, teaching at the Fletcher School. **Deutsches Konto vorhanden. …” http://www.zvab.com/advancedSearch.do?title=Eastern+Europe+and+the&author=Hanc Old Fulton NY Post Cards By Tom Tryniski “Josef Hanc, shown in this country, scores of. 1943. was thescene of a United Czecho-Slovakian consul station- the Oswego films were released …” fultonhistory.com/Process%20small/Newspapers/The%20Fulton%20patriot/Misc%20Old%20Fulton%20Ny%20%20Newspapers%201840%20-%201900%20pdf/Newspaper%20%20Misc%20Old%20Fulton%20Ny%201840-1900-0074.pdf [BOOK] Eastern Europe and the United States J Hanc – 1942 – World peace foundation [BOOK] Tornado Across Eastern Europe: The Path of Nazi Destruction from Poland to Greece J Hanc – 1942 – The Greystone press Czechs and Slovaks since Munich J Hanč – Foreign Affairs, 1939 – jstor.org / Page 1. CZECHS AND SLOVAKS SINCE MUNICH By Josef Hani THE Czecho-Slovak Republic left by the Munich settlement of September 29, 1938, was destined from the start to be short-lived. At Munich one third of the country’s territory … Some Misconceptions About Central and Eastern Europe J Hanc – Anals – JSTOR NEARLY every country and people has had the misfortune, at one time or another, of seeing a distorted picture of itself in the mirror of inter- national opinion. The phenomenon of misconception has a great deal to do with the … [CITATION] Who are the Sokols? J Hanc – American Sokol Gymnastic Meet and Exhibition …, 1936 / [BOOK] Southeastern Asia and the Philippines LA Mills – 1943 – American Academy of Political and Social Science / [BOOK] The American Family in World War II RH Abrams – 1943 – American Academy of Political and Social Science / Victory Is Not Enough J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1943 – JSTOR Victory Is Not Enough should be read discerningly as a stimulating contribution to the challenging problem of future peace. JOSEF HANC Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy PARKES, HENRY BAMFORD. The World Af- ter War: A Program for … Permanent World Peace J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1943 – JSTOR Permanent World Peace. Josef Hanc. … It is because the volume contains both that it may be regarded as a stimulating contribution to the discussion of the problems of the postwar world. JOSEF HANC Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. The Bright Passage J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1947 – JSTOR THE ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY tries on several occasions, Mr. Maurice Hindus, the distinguished writer and cor- respondent of the New York Herald Trib- une, paid particular attention to Czecho- slovakia. He found that the … SIMUTIS, ANICETAS. The Economic Re construction of Lithuania After J Hanc – The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and … – ann.sagepub.com … The ANNALS of the American DOI: 10.1177/000271624222300142 1942; 223; 210 The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Josef Hanc 1918. Pp. xiii, 148. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. … Mobilizing for Abundance J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1944 – JSTOR Mobilizing for Abundance. Josef Hanc. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 233, 245-246. May, 1944. NATHAN, ROBERT R. Mobilizing for Abun- dance. Pp. xv, 228. New … A Permanent United Nations J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1943 – JSTOR A Permanent United Nations. Pp. x, 146. New York: GP Putnam’s Sons, 1942. $1.50. The author of this lucid little volume is a lawyer of considerable experience in the theory and practice of international law, and a strong believer in the … HINDUS, MAURICE. The Bright Passage. Pp. xiv, 370. Garden City, NY J Hanc – The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and … – ann.sagepub.com POLLOCK, JAMES K., and JAMES H. MEISEL. Germany Under Occupation. Pp. 306. Ann Arbor, Michigan: George Wahr Publishing Co., 1947. No price. Germany Under Occupation is a collec- tion of documents and illustrative material. James … KRAUS, RENÉ, Europe in Revolt. Pp. x, 563. New York: The Macmillan J Hanc – The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and … – ann.sagepub.com KRAUS, RENÉ, Europe in Revolt. Pp. x, 563. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1942. $3.50. Books and pamphlets dealing with Europe under the Axis occupation are growing in number and in emphasis. Up to now, the most authentic are … The Politics of This War J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1943 – JSTOR The Politics of This War. Josef Hanc. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 228, 108. Jul., 1943. Book Department HARVEY, RAY F., et al. The Politics of This War. … JOSEF HANC Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy DEÁK, FRANCIS. Hungary at the Paris Peace Conference. Pp. xxii, 594. J Hanc – The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and … – ann.sagepub.com DEÁK, FRANCIS. Hungary at the Paris Peace Conference. Pp. xxii, 594. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. $5.50. A considerable portion of the material contained in this large volume appeared in print in the Papers and … Some Misconceptions about Central and Eastern Europe J Hanč – The Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1944 – jstor.org NEARLY every country and people has had the misfortune, at one time or another, of seeing a distorted picture of itself in the mirror of international opinion. The phenomenon of misconception has a great deal to do with the … Europe in Revolt J Hanc – Annals of the American Academy of Political and …, 1942 – JSTOR Europe in Revolt. Josef Hanc. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 223, 203-204. Sep., 1942. Europe in Revolt. Pp. x, 563. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1942. $3.50. …


99.) Hartner, Willy (1935-1939) Harvard / Astronomy

 Willy Hartner (1905–1981) was a German scientist. He studied at Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, where he received his PhD in physics in 1928 and where he later served as professor from 1940, as ordinary professor from 1946. / In 1943, he founded the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, today part of the Institute of Physics at the university. Hartner received the George Sarton Medal in 1971. He was president of the Academie International d’Histoire des Sciences from 1971 to 1978. He was a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1935, of the Academia Real de buenas letras, Spain, in 1968 and of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy, in 1975, and of the Royal Danish Academy in 1980. In 1975, he received the rank of knight in the Légion d’honneur. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Hartner

Then, when the Parisian publisher of this journal brutally tore up his contract at the end of 1970, because of a considerable deficiency in management, Professor Willy Hartner succeeded in obtaining from the kindness of one of his friends a private grant of the highest usefulness. By a curious turn of events, it was thanks to this grant that the Academy was in a position to undertake the whole of the financial burden that the resolution of the situation concerning the Archives imposed, a burden that the Division of the History of Science of IUHPS had declared outside its own capabilities. For this reason all discussion of the ownership of this international journal was obviated, and at the time when the Academy embarked upon its new, separate existence, it received, at Moscow, recognition that the Archives might be reborn, under its sole management and control, as the official organ of its activity. http://www.aihs-iahs.org/en/history/1940-1974

“Other scholars went along the same path, such as Victor Roberts, who collaborated with Ted Kennedy, and Willy Hartner, who had the chair of history of …” / “Hartner, Willy 1950. “The Astronomical Instruments of Cha-ma-lu-ting, … [ Reprinted with additional notes in Willy Hartner, Oriens-Occidens, Hildesheim, …” / “Willy Hartner. “Ptolemy and Ibn Yûnus on Solar Parallax. …. Willy Hartner. “An Unusual Value for the Length of the Meridian Degree: 66 1/2 Miles, …” / “Willy Hartner’s determination to set methodological boundaries … Willy Hartner,. “The Role of Observations in Ancient and Medieval Astrono- …” / “An intriguing theory, put forth thirty years ago by Professor Willy Hartner, eloquently describes the result. Briefly put, at about 4000 BC, the Lion is …” / “suggested that I read a paper by Willy Hartner that had just appeared on the subject of Ptolemy’s cosmic distances. I soon realized that the Greek text of …” Max Dehn in memoriam, by Willy Hartner, in German, July 16, 1952. “Max Dehn zum Gedächtnis, by Wilhelm Magnus and Ruth Moufang, in German, …” “… delivered by Wolfgang Franz, director of the mathematical seminary in Frankfurt, on Dehn’s death, July 16, 1952 Max Dehn in memoriam , by Willy Hartner, …” / “Hartner, Willy. “The Pseudoplanetary Nodes of the Moon’s. Orbit in Hindu and Islamic Iconographies”, Ars Islámica, vol. 5,1938, pp. 112-54. …” / “Professor Willy Hartner of Frankfurt University stimulated Brieux in his scholarly work, and in order to understand Islamic astrolabes he learnt Arabic. …” / “For the most part, this is based on the work of the late historian of ancient astronomy, Willy Hartner of Frankfurt University, who concluded that the …” / “Willy Hartner, “The role of obervations in ancient and medieval astronomy”, Journal for the history of astronomy, viii (1977), 1–11, p. 7.” The reception of Copernicus as reflected in biographies “It can only confirm what Willy Hartner said with remarkable clearness in the 1960s, that actually the diligence of the Copernicus researchers …” http://www.2iceshs.cyfronet.pl/2ICESHS_Proceedings/Chapter_12/R-4_Kuehne.pdf

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