Displaced Scholars

Hegemann – Hoeniger

100.) Hegemann, Werner (1933-1936) Columbia U. / Architecture and City Planning

 Werner Hegemann (18811936) was a city planner, critic on architecture and author. He was born in Mannheim, Germany and died in New York City. / He began his studies in Berlin and Paris and finally settled for national economy at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Strasbourg, finishing his doctorate in Munich in 1908. Returning to the US, he visited Philadelphia, New York and worked for the “Boston-1915” Exposition, held in Boston 1909. / Back in Berlin, the following year he was made general secretary of the first international city planning exhibition to be held in Berlin in 1910. Afterwards Hegemann was commissioned with the exhibition’s official memoir. After extensive travels to collect his materials, he published two volumes on Der Staedtebau (City Planning) 1911 and 1913.

In 1913 he was invited by The People’s Institute of New York to give lectures on city planning in several American cities. Again traveling widely, after publishing an extensive report on the Californian cities of Oakland and Berkeley in 1915 he worked as a city planning consultant. He established his own firm in 1916 specializing in suburban planning, with landscape architect Elbert Peets as his partner. Later, Hegemann and Peets authored a thesaurus on civic art, commenting on about 1200 samples of the discipline, in The American Vitruvius of 1922. / Returning to Europe in 1921, he was made editor of Wasmuths Monatshefte für Baukunst (Wasmuths monthly magazine for architecture) in Berlin. The review became known for its international range of architecture and Hegemann’s sharp, literate critiques. Meanwhile he wrote debunking biographies of German heroes and, in 1930, united historical and architectural criticism in his book on Berlin: Das steinerne Berlin (The stone-Berlin), the work Hegemann is still known for today. Writing political articles as well, he warned against the Nationalsocialists. Before his books were burned in 1933, Hegemann had already left Germany. 

Invited by Alvin Johnson, Hegemann taught at the New School for Social Research in New York, where he arrived in late 1933. From 1935 on, he lectured urban planning at Columbia University, New York, publishing his last book on City Planning Housing in 1936. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Hegemann

VASTER SKYSCRAPERS INEVITABLE, SAYS GERMAN EXPERT; Dr. Werner Hegemann“. The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D05E5DE103BE633A25755C0A9629C946296D6CF


101.) Heine-Geldern, Robert von (1935-1944) Iranian Inst., NYC / Ethnology

Robert Baron (Freiherr) von Heine-Geldern (July 16, 1885 – May 25/26, 1968), often known as Robert Heine-Geldern, was a noted Austrian ethnologist, ancient historian, and archaeologist, and a grandnephew of poet Heinrich Heine. / Heine-Geldern was born in Grub, Austria, studied first at the University of Munich, then art history and ethnography under Father Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954) at the University of Vienna. In 1910 he traveled to the India / Burma boundary to study local populations, completing his thesis in 1914 on The Mountain Tribes of Northeastern Burma.

Heine-Geldern performed military service during World War I, then worked at the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. His research combined ethnological, pre-historical and archaeological concepts, and in 1923 pioneered the field of Southeast Asian anthropology with his chapter “Sϋdostasien” in G. Buschan’s Illustrierte Völkerkunde. He began teaching at the University of Vienna in 1927, where he became Professor in 1931. From 1938 through World War II, he lived as a refugee in New York City, where he worked at the American Museum of Natural History. At this time he was instrumental in creation of the Southeast Asia Institute in the United States (1941). He returned to Vienna in 1950 where he joined the Ethnology Institute. He died in Vienna.

Heine-Geldern was active in starting Southeast Asian studies as an academic field, and his essay on “Conceptions of State and Kingship in Southeast Asia,” (1942) is now classic. He was awarded a medal by the Viking Fund, and was a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Anthropological Institute, and the École française d’Extrême-Orient. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_von_Heine-Geldern


102.) Hellinger, Ernst (1933-1934, 1938-1944) Northwestern / Mathematics

 Ernst David Hellinger (1883–1950; b. Strzegom, Poland; d. Chicago, IL) Polish mathematician. Hellinger was a Polish Jew, educated at several German universities, obtaining his doctorate from U Göttingen in 1907. In 1914 he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at U Frankfurt. In 1938 he was arrested (because he was a Jew) and taken to Dachau concentration camp. The following year he was allowed to emigrate to the United States, where he joined the staff at Northwestern U. http://www.answers.com/topic/ernst-hellinger

Born: 30 Sept 1883 in Striegau (now Strzegom, Poland), Silesia, Germany Died: 28 March 1950 in Chicago, Illinois, USAErnst Hellinger’s parents were Emil and Julie Hellinger and the fact that the family was Jewish meant that he would have major problems after the Nazis came to power. Hanna, a sister of Ernst, later became Hanna Meissner and wrote the article [3] about her brother. Ernst grew up in Breslau where he attended school, graduating from the Gymnasium there in 1902. It was at the Breslau Gymnasium that Hellinger first became fascinated in mathematics, and this was the result of an excellent mathematics teacher at the school. / Hellinger entered the University of Heidelberg but, following the tradition in Germany at that time, he did not complete his studies at a single university but moved to several different universities during the course of his studies. His second university was Breslau, so he returned to the town where he was brought up, and then in 1904 he followed his friend Max Born to Göttingen. Hellinger would keep in touch with Born and developments in quantum mechanics for much of his life. In Göttingen Hellinger was a student of Hilbert and, not long after he began his studies there, he was joined by Courant and Toeplitz who had been his fellow students at Breslau. / Hellinger was awarded his doctorate by the University of Göttingen in 1907 for a thesis entitled Die Orthogonalinvarianten quadratischer Formen von unendlichvielen Variablen. He introduced a new type of integral, the Hellinger integral in his doctoral thesis and, jointly with Hilbert, he produced the important Hilbert-Hellinger theory of forms. Then from 1907 to 1909 he was an assistant at Göttingen and, during this time, he, etc. … Privatdozent from 1909 to 1914. He was then appointed to a chair at the new university of Frankfurt am Main. He was not the only appointment to Frankfurt in 1914 for Szasz was appointed a Privatdozent in that year, later to be promoted to professor. Bieberbach was also at Frankfurt in this early period, although he left after World War I to take up a chair at Berlin. Of course 1914 marked the start of World War I and Hellinger was involved in war service. However, after the end of the war, there were a number of further important appointments to Frankfurt which built up an impressive mathematics department there. Epstein was appointed in 1919, Dehn in 1921 and Siegel in 1922. Others such as Toeplitz were frequent visitors to the Frankfurt Mathematics Seminar. This Seminar is described in [2] and [6] which both concentrate on the period from 1922 to the difficult years of the 1930s.

On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles. All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired. However, there was an exemption clause which exempted non-Aryans who had fought for Germany in World War I. Hellinger certainly qualified under this clause and this allowed him to keep his lecturing post in Frankfurt in 1933. / Hellinger, however, was forced to retire in 1936 because by this stage the rules that non-Aryans who served in World War I were allowed to keep their posts was being ignored after decisions at the Nuremberg party congress in the autumn of 1935. Hellinger continued to live in Frankfurt. On the Kristallnacht (so called because of the broken glass in the streets on the following morning), the 9-10 November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured, and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences. Thousands of Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues. The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release was that they emigrate. The Gestapo did not arrest Hellinger that night because there was nowhere else to put prisoners but, etc. … he refused to flee … because he wanted to stay and see just how far beyond the traditional standards of justice and ethics the authorities would go in his case.On 13 November 1938 he found out how far the authorities would go. He was arrested, first taken to the Festhalle and then put into Dachau concentration camp. By this time his sister, Hanna Meissner, was in the United States and she describes in how Siegel wrote to her to say that Hellinger had been sent to the concentration camp. Fortunately friends were able to arrange a temporary job for Hellinger at Northwestern University at Evanston in the United States. He was released from the Dachau camp after six weeks on condition that he emigrate immediately. Siegel writes:- I saw Hellinger in Frankfurt a few days after his release. He looked emaciated from the utterly insufficient diet at the camp, but maintained a strong will to live as a result of his impending emigration. He refused to discuss his horrifying experiences and was never able to forget the humiliation that was done him. He emigrated to the United States in late February 1939.

Hellinger’s position at Evanston throughout the war was precarious with a series of one-year appointments but he acquired American citizenship in 1944 and worked at Evanston until 1949 when he retired. Of course after just a few years work he would not have received a pension to enable him to live and he had constant financial worries. After retirement he accepted a post at Illinois Institute of Technology but he fell ill with cancer in November 1949 and died a few months later. etc. http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Hellinger.html / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Hellinger


103.) Herma, John Leonard (1940-1944) 96 McDougal St., NYC / Psychology

John Leonard Herma – “Hans Herma” – (d. September 20, 1966) * Elements of Psychoanalysis; EDITED BY HERMA, JOHN LEONARD, ED. , AND KURTH, GERTRUD MARIA. … EDITED BY HERMA, JOHN LEONARD, ED. , AND KURTH, GERTRUD MARIA … * Occupational Choice: An Approach to a General Theory Book by Eli Ginzberg, Sol W. Ginsburg, Sidney Axelrad, John L. Herma; 1951. Read Occupational Choice: An … * Life Styles of Educated Women Book by Eli Ginzberg, Ivar E. Berg, Carol A. Brown, John L. Herma, Alice M. Yohalem, Sherry Gorelick; 1966. Read Life Styles of … * JOHN L. HERMA (d. September 20, 1966) * MAX FRIEDLANDER (d. December 30, 1966) * The New School for Social Research fosters the highest standards of scholarly … John L. Herma Austria / psychology. Paul Hermberg Germany / statistics … [PDF] Mental Health 1140k – Adobe PDF * Sol W. Ginsburg, and John L. Herma, The Lost Divisions (New York: 1955) … Schlenger, John A. Fairbank, Richard L. Hough, B. Kathleen Jordan, Charles R. …www.pdhealth.mil/nlAttachments/DHCC-Uploads/AJPH.2006.090910v1.pdf The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science … in collaboration with WILLIAM HENRY CHAMBERLIN, PERCY L. GREAVES, JR. … GINZBERG, ELI, JOHN L. HERMA, and SOL W. GINSBURG. …ann.sagepub.com/content/vol292/issue1 – 66k http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=psar.053d.0173a / Ginzberg, E., Bergmann, M. (1966). John L. Herma: In Memoriam: Two Addresses*. Psychoanal. Rev., 53D:173-177 / John L. Herma: In Memoriam: Two Addresses – Eli Ginzberg and Martin Bergmann 1. By Eli Ginzberg I would like to talk with you about Hans Herma, my friend of two decades-of his childhood on a farm in Slovenia; of his secondary and university education in Vienna, where he had the finest of academic training in philosophy under world-famous leaders of symbolic logic, and in psychology under Karl and Charlotte Buehler; of his first exposure to psychoanalysis; of his witness to the erosion of Austrian socialism and its replacement by Nazi imperialism; of his break with his homeland and flight to Switzerland, where he had the good fortune to join the research group of Jean Piaget; of his immigration to the United States, through the intercession of Lawrence Kubie; of his initiation to American academic life at St. Lawrence University, and his retreat therefrom; of his war service, both military and civilian, during which he was a collaborator of Ernst Kris; of his years of teaching at New York University; of his active participation as a faculty member in va … [This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.] (1951). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 32:326 / Elements of Psychoanalysis: edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Hans Herma, Ph.D., and Gertrud M. Kurth, Ph.D., Foreword by C. P. Oberndorf, M.D., Sol. W. Ginsburg, M.D., Advisory Editor. (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company. Pp. 333.) Review by: Robert Fliess – The headings under which these ‘elements’ are treated are: 1. Psychoanalytic Therapy; 2, Elementary Facts and Concepts; 3, Childhood and Adolescence; 4, Family Life; 5, Some Common Problems (Impotence and Frigidity, Masturbation, Homosexuality); 6, Psychosomatic Medicine; 7, Applied Psychoanalysis (Education, Religion, Politics). The editors’ purpose is in their own words ‘to acquaint the reader with the basic discoveries of psycho-analysis and with some of the practical problems of living’. It is the lay reader whom they have in mind, and whose avid and ever-increasing interest commands publications such as these. Drs. Herma and Kurth have achieved their purpose in the words of Dr. Oberndorf’s foreword ‘through careful arrangement and discriminating selection’ on the basis of their own ‘thorough acquaintance with the subject matter’. The reviewer agrees with this judgment, although he feels that it is applicable in a varying degree to the different topics: some of these ar … [This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.] Issues Commerical Policy Between the Two Wars — Personal Observations of a … Industrial Concentration versus Small Business — The Trend of Nazi Policy. Hans Herma …www.socres.org/vol10/issue102.html – http://www.socres.org/vol10/issue102.html Society for the Protection of Science and Learning Papers The library is grateful to the Leverhulme Foundation for providing a 2 year … B Correspondence of councillors and officials …www.rsl.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html – 642k History of Health Services Research Project: Interview with Eli Ginzberg Skip to Content. United States National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health … He brought in another very able Austrian by the name of Hans Herma. …www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/nichsr/ginzberg.html – 81k http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/nichsr/ginzberg.html / Ginzberg: We had a leading old man here at Columbia. The leading old man was E. R. A. Seligman, and he became something of a sponsor of mine. I had him the last year that he was here. He taught both the history of economics-for which he used notes that were forty years old-and was also an expert on public finance. I later became a close friend of his daughter, so I saw a lot of Seligman both socially here in New York and at Lake Placid I used to visit with him. He was Jewish. Berkowitz: Would you have said that Elton Mayo was a mentor as opposed to, say, Edwin Witte? In other words, you weren’t really an institutional economist, but did this sort of industrial psychology. Wasn’t there a fellow at Columbia who did that? I know a lot of it was a Harvard Business School. Ginzberg: We really didn’t go that way at Columbia. We had a fellow by the name of Seager in labor initially. He was a very old fashioned type. Then there was Leo Wolman. My interests in psychology came in other ways. They came through my cousin who was a psychoanalyst and who worked with me on the unemployed. He brought in another very able Austrian by the name of Hans Herma. Berkowitz: I want to get to your interest in health. I know that the Second World War was very important in that. I did read your autobiography and I know that you went to work as a civilian, but I couldn’t quite figure all the institutional details of that. Could you tell me a little bit about that? http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/nichsr/ginzberg.html /  “(34) Hans Herma, `Goebbel conception of propaganda, Social Research, vol 10, no 1, February 1945, p 200. (35) Eliasberg, op. cit., p 197. …” German radio propaganda : report on home broadcasts during the war / Ernst Kris and Hans Speier, in association with Sidney Axelrad, Hans Herma, Janice Loeb [and others] “Hans Herma, Goebbels’ Conception of Propaganda. Ernst Cassier, Hermann Cohen, 1842-1918. Frieda Wunderlich, The Beveridge Plan (Note) …” * “4Egon Brunswik and Hans Herma, Probability learning of perceptual cues in the establishment of a weight illusion, ibid., 41, 1951, 281-290. …” * “Herma John L John Leonard 1911 : A Handbook of psychoanalysis / edited, with an introduction by Hans Herma and Gertrud M. Kurth ; foreword by CP Oberndorf …”


104.) Herrmann, Léon (1940-1943) New School for Social Research / Classical Literature

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO SENECA “See Léon Herrmann, Du Golgotha au Palatin (Brussels, 1934), pp 152-168; idem, Le 29 Juillet 58 … Léon Herrmann, Le second Lucilius (Brussels, 1958), p. …” http://www.nazarenus.com/0-4-tragospel.htm Tragédies [par] Sénèque. Texte établi et traduit par Léon Herrmann … “Contributions: Herrmann, Léon,. Work: Works. Series: Collection des universités de France. Language: French. LC: PA6664 A2 1968 …” openlibrary.org/b/OL21389732M BEFORE THE JEWISH SENATE “See also M. Simon, Hercule et le christianisme, (Paris, 1959) and Léon Herrmann, Chrestos (Brussels, 1970), pp. 60-64. …” http://www.metrum.org/gosen/jewishsenate.htm Some Modern Versions of Senecan Drama “ten by scholars who had served in the war: Léon Herrmann, who had fought in the French army at Verdun and ended the war as a captain, …” http://www.reference-global.com/doi/abs/10.1515/tcs.2009.008 By Their Fruits Ye Shall Know Them, by Professor Revilo P. Oliver “The learned Leon Herrmann has argued that Pliny’s famous letter was grossly interpolated, if not forged, by the later Christians to whitewash their cult …” http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/By_Their_Fruits.html PUBLIC “-//The New York Public Library//TEXT (US::NN::MUS::JPB 93 … “[Letter from Léon Herrmann]. 1 typed page. [MAI-15265] Summary of contents of an undated letter. Related names: Herrmann, Léon. 2 59 Delsarte, François, …” http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/music/muscurtiss.xml Apuleius, Christianity, and Virgin Birth “of the vile character of this representative adherent to the cult, Christianity is humorously and bitingly ridiculed. Léon Herrmann, despite his bold …” hw.oeaw.ac.at/0xc1aa500d_0x0009ff2a.pdf The Bayeux Tapestry: History or Propaganda? “1-35, 153-94; also Léon Herrmann, Les fables antiques de la broderie de Bayeux,. Collection Latomus 69 (Brussels, 1964); and Dodwell, “Bayeux Tapestry,” 559 …” http://www.medievalists.net/files/09012309.pdf EMERGING CHRISTIANITY AND GRAECO-ROMAN CULTURE: TENrTATIVE ANSWERS … “Léon HERRMANN,. Séneque et les premiers chrétiens (CollLat 167; Brüssel: Latomus 1979); Joel. SCHMILIT: L’apotre et le philosophe: Saint Paul et Sénkque, …” http://www.raco.cat/index.php/RevistaTeologia/article/view/71352/100402 JESUS POISONED “405f. Cf. Léon Herrmann, Sénèque et les premiers chrétiens,(Brussels, 1979), p. 78. Stoic Philosophy (London, 1969). Previous · Contents · Next.” http://www.metrum.org/gosen/jesuspoisoned.htm Latomus Historique “L’association, constituée entre Marc-Antoine KUGENER (Président), Léon HERRMANN (Secrétaire), Gilbert HEUTEN (Trésorier), André BOUTEMY (Secrétaire adjoint) …” users.belgacom.net/latomus/historique.html * “His younger brother, the American magician Alexander Herrmann (1844–96), called Herrmann the Great, and his nephew Leon Herrmann (1868–1909) also toured …” * NYtimes January 3, 1897 – M. Leon Herrmann, nephew of Alexander Herrmann, the famous magician, who recently died, arrived in New York yesterday, on the American Line steamer St. Louis. Leon is destined to succeed his uncle, and will make his first appearance here next Sunday night, probably, at Hoyt’s Theatre, when he will give a performance for the press and invited guests. [ END OF FIRST PARAGRAPH ]


105.) Herz, Gerhard (1937-1941, 1944) U of Louisville / Musicology

Gerhard Herz (1911-2000) * In its great sadness, it is a deeply appreciated task to devote a few words to the memory of Gerhard Herz, who died in early September of this year. / His life was committed to Bach scholarship. In very young years, he had completed his doctorate with a dissertation on the legacy of Romantic Bach veneration. It was to be published by B䲥nreiter, but with the imprint completed, he was advised by the firm?s president to take the publication out of Germany, whose regime would not favor the work of a Jewish author. The one who came to his rescue was Albert Schweitzer, who had early taken a compassionate interest in the young scholar and his work. The book was published in Switzerland, and the author’s emigration to the United States received decisive help. He found a position at the University of Louisville, with a chair in music history that he kept throughout his life. / There were very few centers for the American cultivation of Bach?s work at the time; in fact, there was no real center. The Bach Choir of Bethlehem, the oldest American “center,” was founded in the same year as the Neue Bach- gesellschaft. Albert Riemenschneider’s admirable work led to a Bach Institute at Baldwin-Wallace College, and with Arthur Mendel’s scholarly work, Bach studies entered the American University. Gerhard Herz made it a habit to visit him regularly at Princeton. He would do research in the Bach treasures Arthur Mendel had gathered and would invariably spend some moments of silent reverence in front of the authentic Bach portrait in William Scheide’s home. / I vividly remember the occasion of one of these visits. Germany?s division into East and West, with separate chapters rather than a single self-contained Bach Society had prompted the wish for the establishment of similar chapters in other countries, especially the United States. As conductor of the Bethlehem Bach Choir at the time, I was able to offer the Society, upon its inquiry, one of Bethlehem?s historic buildings, which served as the Choir?s organizational headquarters, and to take over the task of organizing an American chapter. / No such step could be undertaken, I realized, without Arthur Mendel?s help. There were only very few members of the International Society in the country (among them Rudolf Serkin), and Mendel was hesitant because of the Society?s outspoken emphasis that it served a specifically German legacy. Eventually, he drew reassurance from the fact that, as he said, were England to concern itself with an international Shakespeare society, it would doubtless in no way neglect an emphasis upon a specifically English legacy, and he recommended the inclusion of new members, including Gerhard Herz. / He agreed to call a Princeton meeting of what might be key members of the chapter. In preparation of it, we were going to use one of the routine visits by Herz to act according to some provisional ?bylaws? which provided for a pro tem committee of three officers, chairman, vice chairman, and secretary, who wee to take over these duties by agreement among themselves. / Herz happened to be late for the meeting, and with a twinkle in his eye, Mendel said, “While he’s delayed, let’s elect him chairman.” Herz, in his positive spirit, arrived not with an apology, but with a classic verse on his lips: “Sp䴠kommt ihr, doch Ihr kommt, Graf Isolan,” and I remember his pleasant, yet proud surprise when Mendel informed him that he had just been appointed the first chairman for an American chapter of the of the American chapter of the international Bach Society (today the American Bach Society). / He served his duties well. At a Leipzig meeting of the international Society, introducing the chapter, he announced the plan for his book on the astounding variety of original Bach sources in America, his magnum opus, which took years of research throughout America, to be published in German and English in the two Germanies and this country. It crowned his fine publications in the Bach Jahrbuch and numerous other scholarly journals, his Norton ?study scores?–actually complex histories–of Cantatas 4 and 140, and his ?Essays on J.S. Bach,? published in English (UMI, 1985) and in East and West German editions. He became an honorary member of the international Bach Society and the American Bach Society, was honored at his university with a Festschrift and as a veritable oracle of American Bach research. / His last years were beclouded by illness. He fought a brave fight. –Alfred Mann http://www.americanbachsociety.org/Newsletters/NewsletterBody00Fall.html


106.) Herz, John H. (1938-1944) Office of Strategic Services D.C. / Law

 John H. Herz (d. age 97) scholar of international relations and law and a professor emeritus of government at City College of New York who focused his studies and writings on the relationships between contemporary politics and its worldwide challenges, including population pressures, the exhaustion of natural resources, environmental destruction, and possible nuclear annihilation. Herz was one of several professors who escaped from Nazi Germany after World War II and found teaching jobs at historically black US colleges (a story chronicled in the documentary From Swastika to Jim Crow). He died in Scarsdale, New York on December 26, 2005. http://www.lifeinlegacy.com/display.php?weekof=2005-12-31

John H. Herz (1908-2006) was an “American” scholar of international relations and law. He was born in Dusseldorf, Germany. He received a diploma from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in 1938, fled Europe for the USA and found a temporary position at Princeton University. In 1941 he taught Political Science at Howard University. After World War II he worked as a political analyst for the US State Department – he took part in the US delegation to the Nuremberg trials and also helped draw up a plan for democratizing the occupation zone in Germany. While at Howard Herz wrote Political Realism and Political Idealism, a book which the American poligtical Science Association awarded the Woodrow Wilson Prize in 1951.The following year he joined City College of New York, where he taught International Relations until his retirement in 1979. John H. Herz was one of a number of Jerwish refugees from Nazi Germany who found positions in American universities and taught International Relations from a critical, Realist perspective. He wrote books and several influential articles. Herz died in New York in 2006, at the age of 97. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_H._Herz

John H. Herz is a significant, but comparatively neglected, figure in the development of International Relations (IR) as a discipline. Although he contributed to the emergence of realism as the dominant approach to international relations in the United States, his thought is characterised by an insight into the fragility of the international order and the state which stands in marked contrast to the emphasis upon durability and persistence evident in recent surveys of a self-avowed American realism. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=477D3091E70C9E117723F9945A6EE328.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=299226 * John H. Herz’s model of the `security dilemma’ is regularly cited in textbooks and has become common usage among students of international relations. In contrast, the full range of his work on international politics has received little attention. Nevertheless, his work deserves substantial reassessment, for three main reasons: first, Herz contributed significantly to the emergence and development of realism in the 1950s, most notably through his concept of `Realist Liberalism’. Second, the development of Herz’s ideas paradigmatically reflects the `pilgrimage’ of a German-Jewish émigré to the US, who witnessed and analysed almost all of the twentieth century, and a little beyond. Third, Herz was a pioneer in understanding that the new global challenges could not be overcome with classic realist instruments and in accepting the centrality of `non-realist’ insights. http://ire.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/21/3/367

John H. Herz, 97; Howard U. Scholar * By Joe HolleyWashington Post Staff Writer * Wednesday, January 25, 2006

John H. Herz, 97, a scholar of international relations and law and one of a number of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who found positions at historically black colleges and universities, died Dec. 26 of congestive heart failure at his home in Scarsdale, N.Y. He taught at Howard University in the 1940s. / Dr. Herz was born in Dusseldorf, Germany, and received a doctorate from the University of Cologne in 1931. He also studied at the universities of Freiburg, Heidelberg and Berlin and received a diploma from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in 1938. / Also in 1938, he published “The National Socialist Doctrine of International Law,” a book warning about Nazi aims and intentions. He published it under a pseudonym, Eduard Bristler, and managed to immigrate to the United States soon afterward.

He found a position with the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University through the assistance of Abraham Flexner, a founder of the institute. He remained from 1939 to 1941. . Unable to land a faculty position at a large university, he found a haven at Howard. In 1941, Ralph Bunche, then chairman of the political science department, hired Dr. Herz as a government instructor. “From his own experience of discrimination, [Bunche] had special understanding for refugees like my wife and myself,” Dr. Herz wrote in a self-published memoir titled “On Human Survival.” / In a 1994 letter to the editor published in the New York Times, Dr. Herz wrote: “The helping hand stretched out by black colleges and black scholars should not be forgotten at a time when, alas, Jewish-black relations have become strained. I will forever remember in gratitude.” / His experience was among those featured in the documentary “From Swastika to Jim Crow: Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges.”

From 1945 to 1948, he worked as a political analyst with the State Department. At the request of former Office of Strategic Services Director William “Wild Bill” Donovan, Dr. Herz was part of the U.S. legal delegation at the Nuremberg trials and also helped draw up a plan for the democratization of West Germany. / When Bunche became part of the United States’ first delegation to the newly established United Nations, Dr. Herz succeeded him at Howard as chairman of the department of political science and international politics. / While at Howard, he wrote “Political Realism and Political Idealism,” which won the 1951 Woodrow Wilson Prize awarded by the American Political Science Association as the outstanding book in political science for that year.

In 1952, he joined the City College of New York, where he taught until his retirement in 1979. He said earlier than most scholars that environmental destruction and overpopulation were serious threats to life on the planet. He focused his work on the relationship between contemporary politics and global problems such as population pressures, the exhaustion of natural resources and possible nuclear annihilation. He was the author of “International Politics in the Atomic Age.” / The consequences of overpopulation demanded immediate attention, Dr. Herz warned. “Even in countries like the United States, Canada, Australia or even European ones that still can (and should) absorb millions, with a world population increasing by about 100 million each year and doubling exponentially within ever shorter periods, migration alone cannot solve the problem,” he wrote in 1993. He urged developed countries to jointly assist developing countries with family planning, education and other forms of aid. / “His work was his life,” said a nephew, Roger Kingsley. Dr. Herz continued his writing and research until shortly before his death. “His goal was always to find solutions that would bring about a more peaceful world for all to inhabit,” Kingsley said. / Dr. Herz’s wife, Anne Klein Herz, died in 2003. / Survivors include a son, Stephen O. Herz of Thun, Switzerland; and a sister. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/24/AR2006012401560.html

HERZ, JOHN H. (1908–2005), political scientist * Papers, 1940–1981, 40 ft. (GER–015) / Correspondence with scholars and others, 1946–1975; manuscripts and typescripts of books, articles, syllabi, and lectures, 1949–1962; and materials relating to the United Nations Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, 1972–1974. Herz was a professor of political science at several eastern universities. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/emigre.htm


107.) Herzfeld, Ernst Emil (1934-1938, 1944) Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton / Archaeology

 ERNST EMIL HERZFELD (1879-1948), archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in ancient Near Eastern and Iranian studies during the first half of the 20th century. To him we owe many decisive contributions to Islamic, Sasanian, and Prehistoric archeology and history of Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He was the first professor for Near Eastern archeology in the world and instrumental in drafting and issuing the first Persian law of antiquities, by Stefan R. Hauser, David Stronach, Hubertus von Gall, Prods Oktor Skjœrvø, and Josef Wiesehöfer in Encyclopaedia Iranica. * Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies 1900-1950. * Look at the website of the Ernst-Herzfeld-Gesellschaft. * Read Milestones in the Development of Achaemenid Historiography in the Times of Ernst Herzfeld (1879-1948), by Pierre Briant *

Ernst Emil Herzfeld (July 23, 1879January 20, 1948) was an German archaeologist and Iranologist. / Herzfeld was born in Celle, Province of Hanover. He studied architecture in Munich and Berlin, while also taking classes in Assyriology, ancient history and art history. / 1903-05 he was assistant to Walter Andrae in the acclaimed excavations of Assur, and later traveled widely in Iraq and Iran at the beginning of the twentieth century. He surveyed and documented many historical sites in Turkey, Syria, Persia (later Iran) and most importantly in Iraq (e.g. Baghdad, Ctesiphon). At Samarra he carried out the first excavations of an Islamic period site in 1911-13. After military service during World War I he was appointed full professor for “Landes- und Altertumskunde des Orients” in Berlin in 1920. This was the first professorship for Near/Middle Eastern archaeology in the world. 1923-25 he started explorations in Persia and described many of the countries´ most important ruins for the first time. In 1925 he moved to Tehran and stayed there most of the time until 1934. He was instrumental in creating a Persian law of antiquities and excavated in the Achaemenid capitals Pasargadae and Persepolis. / He left Iran at the end of 1934 for a year in London, but never returned. In 1935 he was forced, for political reasons, to leave his position in Germany and became a faculty member of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1936 to 1944. He died in Basel, Switzerland in 1948. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Herzfeld


108.) Hippel, Arthur Robert von (1933-1941, 1944) Mass. Inst. of Technology (Cambridge) / Physics

 Arthur von Hippel – “the father of nanotechnology”.

Arthur Robert von Hippel (18982003) was a German American materials scientist and physicist. Von Hippel was a pioneer in the study of dielectrics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, and semiconductors and was a codeveloper of radar during World War II. / Von Hippel was born in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on November 19, 1898. He graduated in physics from the University of Göttingen, where he was taught by many eminent figures of mathematics and physics of the time, including David Hilbert, Richard Courant, Peter Debye, Robert Pohl, Max Born, Gustav Hertz, and Nobel Prize winner James Franck (who was his thesis supervisor). Von Hippel received his Ph.D. in physics in 1924, and in 1927 married Franck’s daughter, Dagmar.

In 1933, with the ascension of Nazis to power in Germany, von Hippel decided to move to another country, mainly because his wife was Jewish, but due also to his political stance against the new regime. Fortunately in 1934 he was able to secure a position with the University at Istanbul, Turkey, then spent a year in Denmark, working at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. In 1936, accepting an invitation by Karl Compton, von Hippel moved again, this time to the U.S., and became an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1940 he founded the Laboratory for Insulation Research, which soon became one of the most important research and education centers in this area in the world.

Together with MIT’s Radiation Lab, von Hippel and his collaborators helped to develop radar technology during the war. He was awarded the President’s Certificate of Merit in 1948 by U.S. President Harry Truman. He became famous also for his discovery of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3). / He was the author of the pioneering book Molecular Science and Molecular Engineering (1959). The term molecular engineering was coined by him in the 1950s, and he suggested the feasibility of constructing nanomolecular devices. The premier award of the Materials Research Society is named in his honor. / He died at 105 years of age, in 2003. His son, Eric von Hippel, is an MIT economist. His uncle, Eugen von Hippel, described the ophthalmic hemangiomata that are part of von Hippel-Lindau disease, which bears his name. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_R._von_Hippel / http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Arthur-R.-von-Hippel 

In his web-based autobiography, Arthur von Hippel (1898–2003), the father of nanotechnology, dedicated a chapter to his own tragicomic experiences in Turkey, including some anecdotes involving two colleagues—ophthalmologist Joseph Igersheimer (1879–1965) and dentist Alfred Kantorowicz (1880–1962). http://en.allexperts.com/e/a/ar/arthur_r._von_hippel.htm


109.) Höber, Rudolf (1933-1941, 1944) Dept. of Physiology, U of Pennsylvania / Physiology

 Rudolf Höber (1886-1961). One of hundreds of German scholars displaced by the Nazis after 1933, Rudolf Höber was an early proponent of applying physicochemical methods to the analysis of the physiology of cell membranes, particularly their permeability and electric properties. Born into an intellectual family in Stettin, Germany (now Poland), on December 27, 1879, Höber studied at the Universities of Freiburg and Berlin before completing a medical degree at Erlangen in 1898. His dissertation was an experimental study of wound shock, Ueber experimentellen Shock durch Reizung der serösen Häute (Leipzig, 1897), yet even while he was writing it, he found himself drawn to the prospect of applying physical chemical methods to the analysis of living cells. From the time of his first academic appointment at the Physiological Institute of the University of Zurich (1897-1909), Höber therefore directed himself to an innovative course of physiological research. / As early as his first years at Zurich, Höber characterized his research interests as centering on a single question: “Was ist und was leistet die Zellmembran?” (What is the cell membrane and how does it function?). This simple question led him to a suite of pioneering studies on the fundamental physiological properties of the cell membrane, its role in the regulation of transport, permeability, and electrical properties. His Physikalische Chemie der Zelle und Gewebe (1902) was a landmark and helped cement Höber’s growing reputation in the field. One of the first monographs on the subject, it was considered the standard text in cell physiology for two decades, passing through at least seven editions before 1926. Höber also published important works on intestinal resorption, the hydroxyl ion concentration of blood, the mechanism of narcosis and its influence upon permeability, and the physiological significance of colloids.

Höber was assisted in his research by his wife, Josephine Marx (1876-1941), whom he married in 1901. Josephine completed her own medical degree shortly after their marriage, becoming one of the first female physicians in Germany. The two often collaborated, even as Josephine maintained her own medical practice. They had three children, Johannes (1904-1977), Gabriele (1906-1988), and Ursula. / In 1909, Höber left Zurich for the prestigious Institute of Physiology at the University of Kiel, receiving a promotion to Ordinarius fuer Physiologie in 1912, and later becoming Director of the Institute (1915), Dean of the Medical School (twice), and eventually Rektor. At Kiel, his reputation continued to expand on the strength of his 1919 textbook Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (1919), which was as influential as Physikalische Chemie, passing through eight editions and translations into several foreign languages. His laboratory became a magnet for students from as far away as the United States and Japan and was much in demand as a lecturer throughout Europe, paying his first visit to the United States in 1929, when he attended the XIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences held at Woods Hole as president of the German Physiological Society. He and his colleagues, Albrecht Bethe and Emil Abderhalden were co-editors of essential journal Pflügers Archiv from 1918-1934.

Yet even an international reputation in his field did not insulate Höber when his country veered toward Fascism. Although neither a politician nor an activist, he earned the enmity of the Nazis when he sat on a University disciplinary court in 1931 that convicted and expelled six pro-Nazi students for their assault on a Lutheran clergyman. Within a week of Hitler seizing power in 1933, Höber himself became a target when his laboratory was taken over and he was confined to the second floor of his institute. Although he was briefly allowed to resume lecturing during the summer semester, by September he was forced into retirement by the Education Ministry of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. / The shocking turn of events made Höber into a minor cause celebre, and with the assistance of the physiologist A. V. Hill and the Rockefeller Foundation, he soon received an invitation to join the staff at the University College, London. In the following spring, 1934, with the support of Henry C. Bazett Höber was offered a position as visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania. For several years, Höber subsisted on grant money from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, the United Jewish Appeal, and the American Philosophical Society. He was able to bring his wife and daughter Ursula with him in 1934, and over the next three years he brought his children Johannes and Gabriele and their families. As she had in Germany, Josephine worked with Höber in his laboratory. When Höber died in Philadelphia in 1953, he was eulogized as a “pioneer and co-founder of a new direction in physiology” as well as a caring mentor. Despite the turmoil and dislocations of his life, Höber’s bibliography surpassed 100 articles.

Scope and content / The papers of the German physiologist Rudolf Höber consist of five linear feet of family correspondence, with a small number of professional letters scattered throughout. Although Höber’s physiological research, per se, is seldom discussed, the letters provide insight into the family life and privileged social milieu of a member of the German intellectual elite in the years prior to and immediately after the First World War, his loss of position after the rise to power of the Nazis, and the conditions of his emigration to the United States, his adjustment to American life, and his attempts to bring the remainder of his family to safety during the late 1930s. / The thickest documentation falls in the period 1898-1905, when Höber is in Zurich, and in the years after his emigration to the United States, while his children remained in Germany, 1935-1938. As might be expected, in this latter correspondence the Höbers are very circumspect when writing about conditions under the Nazis, at least as long as relatives remained in Germany, and they appear to have used a private code to refer to emigration or to express their views on the regime. There is little to document Höber’s expulsion from Kiel in 1933. / In their personal letters, all of the Höber’s routinely referred to themselves and each other by affectionate nicknames, some more obscure than others. A list of these is included in the file marked “Biographical material” (Series II). This same list includes a list of code words used by the Höber’s in correspondence between the United States and Germany during the Nazi period, 1933-1939. After their emigration to America, the Höbers have spelled their name Hoeber or Hober, depending on which branch of the family, etc. http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/h/hoeber.pdf

Physikalische Chemie der Zelle und der Gewebe – Rudolf Höber …” * “As a result, 1934 saw the publication of revisions of Arnold Berliner’s textbook of physics and Rudolf Hober’s textbook of human physiology, …” * dBiochemical Institute, University of Kiel, Rudolf-Höber * herbert keller “moved to the renowned Rudolf Höber Institute for. Physiological Chemistry and Physicochemistry at the University of Kiel. Four years later, he became Head …” * “Rudolf Höber; Otto Hochstadt; Paul F A Hoefer; Suzanne Kann; Bernhard Katz; Gerhard Katz (Cotts); Rudolf Keller; Otto Kestner Shelfmark: MS. …” http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html * The physicuZ chemistry of cells and t&ties


110.) Hoeniger, Heinrich (1934, 1937-1945) Hunter College (NYC) / Law

The Jottings of David Daube: Reflections from the 20th Century by … “lished.101 Heinrich Hoeniger and other colleagues of … Hoeniger, like Pringsheim, was a non- Aryan. He looked very Semitic. Frau Hoeniger, unlike Frau …” books.google.com/books?id=vUyF7FN-uxoC&pg=PT154&lpg=PT154&dq=Heinrich+Hoeniger&source=bl&ots=ttN4veaEVK&sig=sslrZI9kqi3Q7qBeDlO3nju9Vc4 * “In contrast, Heinrich Hoeniger, in the final part of his review of Grundzüge, stated that, like Sinzheimer, he had ‘advised this work on labour law to his …” http://www.jus.unitn.it/cardozo/review/Laborlaw/Nogler-1996/nogler.htm * Henry Ehrmann – “HOENIGER, Professor Heinrich (1879-1961). File 1934-47. MS. S.P.S.L. 266/12. HOFBAUER, Dr. Ludwig (1873-[UNK]). File 1938-43. MS. S.P.S.L. 387/5 …” www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html


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