Displaced Scholars

Kaufmann – Kopal

133.) Kaufmann, Fritz (1933-1944) Northwestern U / Philosophy

“Philosopher (1891-1958). Born Leipzig, Germany. Lived in Buffalo ca. 1946-1958. Professor Kaufmann published extensively on philosophy and on the works of other philosophers and authors.”1940. “Art and Phenomenology.” In Philosophical Essays in Memory of Edmund Husserl. Edited by Marvin Farber. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 187-202.

1941. “Spinoza’s System as a Theory of Expression.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 1: 83-97.

1941. “Concerning Kraft’s ‘Philosophy of Existence.'” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 1: 359-363.

1941. “Art and Religion.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 1: 463-469.

1941. “The Phenomenological Approach to History.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 2: 159-172.

1944. “The World as Will and Representation: Thomas Mann’s Philosophical Novels.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 4: 1-36.

1944. “The World as Will and Representation II.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 4: 287-316.

1947. “On Imagination.” In Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 7: 369-375.

1949. “Phenomenology of the Historical Present.” In Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Philosophy. Amsterdam, The Neterlands: North-Holland Publishing Co., 967-70.

1957. Thomas Mann: The World as Will and Representation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

1960. Das Reich des Schönen; Bausteine zu einer Philosphie der Kunst. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.

see pp. 394-96 for a complete bibliography of Fritz Kaufmann’s work.

1967. Geschichtsphilosophie der Gegenwart. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

1973. Thomas Mann: The World as Will and Representation. New York, NY: Cooper Square Publishers. http://www.husserlpage.com/hus_ref3.html#Fritz%20Kaufmann

Freud and the politics of psychoanalysis “… for instance, by what Fritz Kaufmann deceptively called ‘surprise method’ … 20 Kaufmann was one of the most prominent psychiatrists active in the …” books.google.com/books?id=uM_BYputXakC&pg=PA110&lpg=PA110&dq=Fritz+Kaufmann&source=bl&ots=dHnihRZqNS&sig=TGrQ88KRLvExqOYw-PSyMgYJb5E&hl=en * “FRITZ KAUFMANN’S AESTHETICS Fritz Kaufmann belongs to the group of students … Kaufmann hoped that he would find in Gottingen a philosophy different from …” / “Fritz Kaufmann’s Literary Aesthetics as Defined by His Study of Thomas Mann in American … F.; Kaufmann, F.; Histoire de la philosophie; History of philosophy .” cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=11837639 “FRITZ KAUFMANN: “Martin Bubers Philosophy of Religion 201…the press. Paul Arthur Schilpp Maurice Friedman April, 1965 PostScript The passing of Martin …”

****************************************************************

134.) Kayser, Stephen S. (1938-1944) 250 Virginia St., Berkeley, Ca. / History of Art

“Prof. Stephen S. Kayser (1900-1988) was a guiding force in the formation of Jewish art in America at mid-century. As founding director and curator of New York’s renowned Jewish Museum, this Heidelberg-trained German expatriate scholar set the foundations for Jewish museumship and art scholarship in America. Steven Fine was Professor Kayser’s last student, having written his MA in Art History under Kayser’s direction. A Crown For A King brings together scholars from Israel, the U.S. and Europe writing on a wide range of Professor Kayser’s interests: from archaeology to ceremonial art, from the medieval period to the 20th century.”

Jewish Ceremonial Art, edited by Stephen S. Kayser “Stephen S. Kayser, the editor of Jewish Ceremonial Art (which was originally published as a soft-cover catalogue for the Tercentenary exhibition held last …” http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/jewish-ceremonial-art–edited-by-stephen-s–kayser-2404 Jewish Ceremonial Art, edited by Stephen S. Kayser and Guido … “AMONG Jewish historians and theologians nowadays one often encounters the notion that the plastic arts were never a particular concern of the Jewish people, …” http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/jewish-ceremonial-art–edited-by-stephen-s–kayser-and-guido-schoenberger-3152

****************************************************************

135.) Kempner, Robert Max Wasilii (1938-1944) 112 Lansdowne Court, Lansdowne, Pa. / Police Administration

Robert M. W. Kempner (1899–1993), lawyer and historian. Born in Freiburg, Germany, / From 1926 to 1933 he was a senior government adviser in the Prussian Ministry of Interior in Berlin. In this period he demanded that Hitler be tried for perjury and treason. / He also officially called for disbanding the Nazi Party and Hitler’s deportation as an undesirable alien. Removed from office on Hitler’s rise to power, he was arrested by the Gestapo, and after his release went to Italy, where he taught until 1939. From there he immigrated to the U.S., where he became a research associate at the University of Pennsylvania and, among other government appointments, worked on President Roosevelt’s Manhattan Project. From 1945 to 1946 he was a U.S. prosecutor and from 1946 until 1949 chief prosecutor of Nazi political leaders at the Nuremberg Trials. From 1949 he engaged in special research on the Nazi Holocaust of European Jewry. As a consultant to the Israel government, he helped assemble evidence for the Eichmann trial (1960–61). Subsequently he fought against the Statute of Limitations in West Germany. Kempner practiced law in Frankfurt on the Main in the 1960s. He then moved back to Philadelphia. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0012_0_11027.html

“…returning émigrés serving in official capacities with the American Military Government (OMGUS) or Nuremberg prosecuting teams. … Robert M. W. Kempner, the Nuremberg prosecutor, and Karl Loewenstein, the OMGUS advisor in Berlin”

Carl Schmitt and Nuremberg by Joseph W. Bendersky

The subject of Carl Schmitt and Nuremberg involves all the major aspects of intriguing historical research. It contains prominent personalities, momentous historical episodes, significant impact on longstanding heated (often hostile) interpretive debates, and decades-long documentary discoveries and revelations. The spatial settings of the collapsed Third Reich and a Nuremberg cell are also dramatic. And within these are juxtaposed—in juridical, intellectual, and moral confrontations—Schmitt and returning émigrés serving in official capacities with the American Military Government (OMGUS) or Nuremberg prosecuting teams. On the surface it appears as a black-and-white story of good and evil, the pursuit of justice against, at best, a significant collaborator and, at worst, the person legally culpable for providing the intellectual and legal foundations for Nazi oppressive policies at home and wars of aggression and war crimes abroad. But as is so often the case in history, this particular morality play is complicated by documentary evidence, which categorically shatters such simplistic dichotomies.

From the time Telos first published the main body of Schmitt’s Nuremberg documentation in 1987 to the latest archival revelations from the papers of Robert M. W. Kempner, the Nuremberg prosecutor, and Karl Loewenstein, the OMGUS advisor in Berlin, the basic narrative has been drastically altered. In this respect, both the documentary and interpretive histories of Schmitt and Nuremberg also serve as landmarks in the progress in this field since the time when, in intellectual discourses in the United States, Schmitt was simply dismissed with the indignant comment of “that war criminal.”

Ironically, it was Schmitt (not Kempner) who first revealed the existence, and then encouraged publication, of the complete documentary record of his interrogations and written disquisitions at Nuremberg. For decades, Kempner held steadfast to the shortened edited version of the transcripts of his interrogations of Schmitt that he published in Das Dritte Reich im Kreuzverhör (1969). The subsequent discovery in the National Archives of the transcripts of three interrogations of Schmitt from April 1947 showed Kempner’s version to be incomplete, distorted, and unreliable. Moreover, Schmitt then made available copies of the important disquisitions that he had written at Nuremberg upon Kempner’s request but which thereafter Kempner never acknowledged. Schmitt had secretly made exact shorthand copies of these disquisitions, later published by Telos in English and Helmut Quaritsch in German. Together, the full interrogations and disquisitions refute the Kempner version of Schmitt as the thinker who not only “poisoned the young” but actually provided the theoretical foundations and motivations for the domestic and foreign policy of the Third Reich, including wars of aggression and war crimes. Most recently, research in the newly available Kempner Papers has brought to light even more unacknowledged documentation, including the originals of Schmitt’s handwritten disquisitions and other revealing documents. Most surprising, however, was the discovery of the only surviving transcript of a fourth (completely unknown) interrogation of Schmitt that had occurred on April 11, 1947. It has now been published for the first time in Telos 139. Aside from its inherent documentary value, this fourth interrogation and related material show that, contrary to other interpretations, Kempner was determined to prosecute Schmitt. Nevertheless, the factual information in Schmitt’s written disquisitions about his actual writings and activities during the Nazi years, combined with the judicial constraints of the trials, quickly proved Kempner’s case of legal culpability unfounded, though discussions of Schmitt’s intellectual and moral responsibility remain open to this day.

The perhaps more important related question of the motives and expectations of those responsible for Schmitt’s various arrests and internments, culminating in Nuremberg, has likewise been illuminated by additional new evidence in the Karl Loewenstein Papers. These papers now provide a fuller, well-documented, and more accurate account than the various contradictory and inaccurate explanations Kempner and others reiterated for over half a century. Among these documents are Loewenstein’s diaries during his service in the legal department of OMGUS in Berlin and his evaluations and initiatives regarding Schmitt contained in his various reports to OMGUS urging Schmitt be arrested and tried as a “war criminal” who “contributed more for the defense of the Nazi regime” than any other individual. The substantial extant evidence clearly contradicts the repeated claims of Kempner and others that Schmitt was already under automatic arrest, interned in Berlin, and sent to Nuremberg at the request of the American Military Government.

Instead, archival material shows that the impetus for the various arrests and internments of Schmitt from August 1945 to April 1947, as well as the push for his prosecution, emanated from German émigrés in OMGUS or with prosecuting teams in Nuremberg. At each stage, they took the initiative and persisted in action against him. Moreover, all had known him personally, or of him professionally, as a colleague, student, and/or political opponent in Weimar and the early stages of the Third Reich. After a year of internment without charges, initiated by an insistent Loewenstein, Schmitt had been cleared by both the American and German authorities because he presented no security threat and no other grounds existed for his incarceration. He was living free in Berlin by October 1945, when months later new initiatives brought his re-arrest and Nuremberg interrogations, where once again, when examined, the evidence showed no case against him.

There are other highly significant dimensions to the information and contentions in the interrogations and reports on Schmitt. Foremost among these is that those seeking his prosecution as a war criminal, for having been an influential Nazi thinker and theoretical “instigator” of wars of aggression and war crimes, had such a superficial grasp of his case. It was all premised upon the faulty assumption that through his work and reputation he had significantly influenced the policies and practices of the Third Reich. This perspective, which had been developed abroad, never attempted a thorough examination of his writings or an analysis of his actual personal, political, and professional relationships with the institutions and policies of the Nazi regime. Indeed, when in his OMGUS reports Loewenstein wrote from personal knowledge of Schmitt in Weimar and an extensive scholarly familiarity with his works at that time, he actually refuted Kempner’s claims that Schmitt had sought to undermine Weimar democracy, establish a dictatorship, and for thirty years promoted the conquest of Europe. For Loewenstein depicts Schmitt as one of the most world-renowned “political writers of our time,” whose analysis of Weimar’s political structure, if followed, “might have led to its preservation.” Moreover, Schmitt’s Verfassungslehre was “probably the best treatise on democratic constitutional law in Germany,” and earlier than most he warned against the “overthrow, by legal methods, of the Weimar Republic by Hitler.” Schmitt’s subsequent turn to Nazism, Loewenstein argued, was an opportunistic path of a morally flawed personality with inherent authoritarian tendencies.

Beyond documentary revelations and contesting narratives, Schmitt’s case again highlights the question of whether one can separate certain ideas (and thus find them incisive and useful) from the personal failings and complex biographies of the thinkers who generate them. More specific to Schmitt, it relates to properly and realistically understanding and judging intellectuals in oppressive and dictatorial regimes, particularly those of a totalitarian and murderous nature. In this respect, Schmitt’s case parallels that of Martin Heidegger. And while one should not avoid, minimize, or excuse the reprehensible compromises that Schmitt did make with the Nazis, the overwhelming amount of evidence clearly establishes that he neither prepared the way for their seizure of power nor provided the theoretical foundations for their policies or practices. The Third Reich was not the fulfillment of his theories, and he did not welcome it enthusiastically as later charged. A perceptive critical analyst of the crisis of Weimar parliamentary government, Schmitt favored strong presidential authority and action to restore and maintain order, peace, and stability in a time of governmental paralysis and latent civil war. He actually did provide the legal and political theories for the Presidential System of Hindenburg (1930 and 1933), in which emergency powers and other legal presidential authorities were used to attempt to stabilize Weimar economically as well as politically. And, as should be common knowledge by this point in the debate, he served as the adviser to Chancellor Schleicher in his efforts to preclude a seizure of power, through force or legal democratic means, by the Communists and Nazis. As Schmitt honestly responded to Kempner during the newly discovered interrogation, “For me the Schleicher government offered the only option to stem the chaos.” http://www.telospress.com/main/index.php?main_page=news_article&article_id=191

************************************************************

136.) Friedrich Kessler (1933-1944) U of Chicago / Law

 Friedrich Kessler (1901 – 1998) was an American law professor who taught at Yale Law School (1935-1938, 1947-1970), University of Chicago Law School, and University of California (Boalt) Law School. He was a contract law scholar, but also wrote of trade regulation law. He was regarded as a member of the American Legal Realism School. He was born in Hechingen, Germany, in 1901 and received his law degree from the University of Berlin in 1928. He was a research member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Foreign and International Law in Berlin until 1934, when he fled Germany to avoid Nazi persecution. He died on January 21, 1998, in Berkeley, CA.[1] His most celebrated article, Contracts of Adhesion—Some Thoughts About Freedom of Contract,[2] coined the phrase “contract of adhesion” to describe a contract between parties of greatly unequal bargaining power, such that the dominant party could impose a “take it or leave it” demand on the weaker party. He argued that in such situations Eighteenth or Nineteenth Century concepts of freedom of contract were unrealistic and should be discarded. He saw such contracts as mocking freedom of contract, making it “a one-sided privilege,” in which the historical evolution of the law from status to contract was reversed–a movement “greatly facilitated by the fact that the belief in freedom of contract has remained one of the firmest axioms in the whole fabric of the social philosophy of our culture.”[3] Others, among his many articles, were: Natural Law, Justice and Democracy—Some Reflections on Three Types of Thinking About Law and Justice, 19 Tulane L. Rev. 32, 52 (1944) Automobile Dealer Franchises: Vertical Integration by Contract, 66 Yale L. J. 1135 (1957). Contract, Competition, and Vertical Integration, 69 Yale L.J. 1 (1959) (with Richard H. Stern) Culpa in Contrahendo, Bargaining in Good Faith, and Freedom of Contract: A Comparative Study, 77 Harv. L. Rev. 401 (1964) (with Edith Fine) http://www.moneycontrol.com/biography/Friedrich_Kessler/98037

“Friedrich Kessler, a former professor at the Yale Law School who was an authority on contracts, comparative law and jurisprudence, died on Jan. …” Friedrich “Fritz” Kessler, 96, German legal scholar who fled Nazis to teach at Yale and UC Berkeley’s Boalt Hall. Born in Hechingen, Germany, Kessler was educated at the universities of Tubingen, Munich and Marburg and was a research member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Foreign and International Law in Berlin. In 1934, he and his wife, Eva, immigrated to the U.S. with the help of a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship. Kessler spent most of his teaching career at Yale, and also taught at the University of Chicago Law School and at Boalt Hall from 1970 until 1977. He was an expert in comparing European and American civil law and on contract law. On Jan. 21 in Berkeley.”

Friedrich Kessler (1901 – 1998) was an American law professor who taught at Yale Law School (1935-1938, 1947-1970), University of Chicago Law School, and University of California (Boalt) Law School. He was a contract law scholar, but also wrote of trade regulation law. He was regarded as a member of the American Legal Realism School. He was born in Hechingen, Germany, in 1901 and received his law degree from the University of Berlin in 1928. He was a research member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Foreign and International Law in Berlin until 1934, when he fled Germany to avoid Nazi persecution. He died on January 21, 1998, in Berkeley, CA.

His most celebrated article, Contracts of Adhesion—Some Thoughts About Freedom of Contract, coined the phrase “contract of adhesion” to describe a contract between parties of greatly unequal bargaining power, such that the dominant party could impose a “take it or leave it” demand on the weaker party. He argued that in such situations Eighteenth or Nineteenth Century concepts of freedom of contract were unrealistic and should be discarded. He saw such contracts as mocking freedom of contract, making it “a one-sided privilege,” in which the historical evolution of the law from status to contract was reversed–a movement “greatly facilitated by the fact that the belief in freedom of contract has remained one of the firmest axioms in the whole fabric of the social philosophy of our culture. … Generations of students remember with affection his unforgettable classroom style—-heavily Socratic but benign. None of them can forget hearing his frequent comment (said with affection) on students’ case misanalyses—-“Verrghy interghesting! But you couuldn’t be wrrhonggair.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Kessler

************************************************************

137.) Kirchberger, Hans (1938-1944) U of Wisconsin / Law

March 3, 1938 was the first day of business for “Kirchberger Sausage,” started by Hans Kirchberger and his brother-in law Theo Johanni. Both emigrated to the U.S. from Schweinfurt, Bavaria, Germany, and they brought with them recipes that are still used today. http://www.sausageshoppe.com/history.htm

STOR “See also Hans Kirchberger, “The Significance of Roman Law for the. Americas and Its Importance to Inter-American Relations,” Wisconsin Law …” pics3441.upmf-grenoble.fr/articles/pol1/Law%20and%20Political%20Development%20in%20Latin%20America%20Toward%20a%20Framework%20for%20Analysis.pdf Roman Civilization – The Empire “1-31; Hans Kirchberger, An Ancient Experience with Price Control, … Keith Bradley, Law, Magic, and Culture in the “Apologia” of Apuleius, Phoenix > Vol. …” abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Rciv06/syllabus/requirements.htm * Hans Kirchberger, An Ancient Experience with Price Control, Journal of Farm Economics > Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1942), pp. 621-636. Assignment: …” abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Rciv06/syllabus/requirements.htm * “… Conference on International Organization; Hans Kirchberger; National Refugee Service, Tim Abraham; Preston Everett James, Geological Museum <Cambridge, …” www.giub.uni-bonn.de/archiv/NLPhilippson/NLAP147.html

**********************************************************************

138.) Kirchheimer, Otto (1934-1936, 1939-1944) Inst. of Social Research, NYC / Law

(1905-1965) 1933-’37): Researcher in the Paris Branch of the International Institute of Social Research (Horkheimer Institute). 1937): Emigrated to the United States. 1937-42): Researcher in Law and Social Science for the Institute of Social Research.1943): U. S. Citizenship granted. In 1943, Kirchheimer moved from New York to Washington, D.C…He took a position as a part-time research analyst at the Research and Analysis Branch of the U. S. Office of Strategic Services. He remained employed with the OSS for thirteen years, eventually directing the total research activities of the Central European Branch (‘52-’56). Lecturer and/or Professor at 1951-65 at American University, Howard University, New School for Social Research, University of Freiburg and Columbia University…The Otto Kirchheimer Papers (1929-1968) are of interest to researchers of constitutional law, criminal justice, and the political and social uses of law…

In 1937 Kirchheimer arrived in the United States with his wife Hilde and daughter Hanne, but the marriage ended a few years later in divorce. While in New York, he continued to work for the International Institute of Social Research (Horchheimer Institute) as a research assistant in law and social science and lecturing in the Institute’s program at Columbia University.

In 1943, Kirchheimer moved from New York to Washington, D.C. with his second wife Anne Rosenthal, who later bore his second child, Peter. He took a position as a part-time research analyst at the Research and Analysis Branch of the U. S. Office of Strategic Services. He remained employed with the OSS for thirteen years, eventually directing the total research activities of the Central European Branch. / his second book Political Justice: The Use of Legal Procedures for Political Ends. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger006.htm

Otto Kirchheimer was born November 11, 1905 in Heilbronn, Germany, third son of Julias Kirchheimer and Friederike (Baer) Kirchheimer. He attended school in Heilbronn and Ettenheim, then attended the Universities of Muenster, Berlin, Koeln and Bonn, graduating magna cum laude from the latter in 1928. With his new law degree in hand he became a contributor to Die Gesellschaft and a lecturer in Political Science at German Trade Union Schools. He practiced law in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, leaving Germany in 1933 knowing that, as a Jew, he could not remain.

The next four years were spent in Paris writing and doing research for the International Institute of Social Research. It is here he started rewriting George Rusche’s work Punishment and Social Structure for the Institute. This Rusche-Kirchheimer version of Punishment and Social Structure was published in 1939.

In 1937 Kirchheimer arrived in the United States with his wife Hilde and daughter Hanne, but the marriage ended a few years later in divorce. While in New York, he continued to work for the International Institute of Social Research (Horchheimer Institute) as a research assistant in law and social science and lecturing in the Institute’s program at Columbia University.

In 1943, Kirchheimer moved from New York to Washington, D.C. with his second wife Anne Rosenthal, who later bore his second child, Peter. He took a position as a part-time research analyst at the Research and Analysis Branch of the U. S. Office of Strategic Services. He remained employed with the OSS for thirteen years, eventually directing the total research activities of the Central European Branch. While at the State Department, Kirchheimer accepted part-time teaching positions at American University and Howard University. He left the State Department in 1955 to teach full time, accepting a professorship in the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research.

Kirchheimer stayed at the New School for five years, teaching and writing his second book Political Justice: The Use of Legal Procedures for Political Ends. In 1961, Kirchheimer accepted a position teaching at Columbia and continued to write for political science journals, contributed to books, and prepared position papers for international conferences. On November 22, 1965, while boarding a plane at Dulles airport on his way to teach at Columbia, Otto Kirchheimer suffered a fatal heart attack.

Nov. 11, 1905 Born in Heilbronn to Julias and Frederike (Baer) Kirchheimer 1912-1924 Attended school in Heilbronn, Heidelberg, Ettenheim 1924-1928 Studied at the Universities of Muenster, Berlin, Koeln, Bonn 1928 Law degree (Dr. Jur.) magna cum laude, University of Bonn 19?? Married Hilde Rosenfeld 1930 Daughter, Hanne, born. 1930-1933 Contributed to Die Gesellschaft and lectured on Political Science at German Trade Union School 1932-1933 Practiced law in Berlin 1933-1937 Researcher in the Paris Branch of the International Institute of Social Research (Horkheimer Institute). Worked on Punishment and Social Structure. Nov. 11, 1937 Emigrated to the United States 1937-1942 Researcher in Law and Social Science for the Institute of Social Research. Lectured at Columbia University. 1941 Divorced Hilde Kirchheimer 1941 (?) Married Anne Rosenthal 1943 Visiting lecturer in Sociology at Wellesley College Nov. 16, 1943 U. S. Citizenship granted 1943-1944 Part-time research analyst at the Research and Analysis Branch of the U. S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 1945 (?) Son, Peter, born 1944-1952 Full-time research analyst at the OS 1952-1956 Chief, Central European Branch, OSS 1951-1952 Lecturer, Political Science, American University 1952-1954 Lecturer, Political Science, Howard University 1954-1955 Visiting Professor on the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research 1955-1961 Professor, Political Science, New School 1961 Completed work on Political Justice 1961-1962 Fulbright Professor, University of Freiburg 1960-1965 Professor, Political Science, Columbia University Nov. 22, 1965 Suffered fatal heart attack

The Otto Kirchheimer Papers (1929-1968) are of interest to researchers of constitutional law, criminal justice, and the political and social uses of law, as well as to those interested the the German exile experience. His correspondence shows a great interest in the emerging German nation and its new constitution, influential political parties and trade unions.

Kirchheimer’s correspondence reveals a man very much respected by German politicians like Fritz Erler, one-time presidential candidate and Carlo Schmid, former vice-president of the German Bundestag. He remained in contact with Gerhard Schulz, labor leader, Ernst Friesenhahn, federal constitutional judge, and Adolf Arndt, long-time member of the Bundestag. Kirchheimer also corresponded with many other intellectuals world-wide. These include Arthur Bergman, Charles David, Horst Ehmke, Ernst Fraenkel, Arkadij Gurland, Arnold Heidenheimer, Wilhelm Hennis, Gerhard Kramer, Gerhard Loewenberg, Karl Loewenstein, Val Lorwin, Harvey Mansfield, Herbert Marcuse, Franz Neumann, Helge Pross, Helmut Ridder, Richard Schmid, and Rudolf Smend. His correspondence files include two letters from Hannah Arendt and one from Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter.

The collection contains correspondence with colleagues, publishers and students (1927-1965). It includes numerous book reviews written by Kirchheimer (1937-1965), reviews and offprints published by his colleagues and associates (1913-1964), as well as extensive research notes on the social and political context of law. The collection also includes much of his personal library. Listings of his offprint collection, book reviews, and pamphlets, as well as a list of the books held in Otto Kirchheimer’s personal library are in the autobiographical file.

Includes correspondence with Adolf Arndt, Hannah Arendt, Arthur Bergman, Charles David, Horst Ehmke, Fritz Erler, Ernst Fraenkel, Ernst Friesenhahn, Arkadi Gurland, Arnold Heidenheimer, Wilhelm Hennis, Gerhard Kramer, Gerhard Loewenberg, Val Lorwin, Karl Loewenstein, Harvey Mansfield, Herbert Marcuse, Franz Neumann, Helge Pross, Helmut Ridder, Richard Schmid, Carlo Schmid, Gerhard Schulz, and Rudolf Smend. Also contains modest correspondence with Max Horchheimer (1), Felix Frankfurter (1) and Hans Staudinger (3-4).

“OTTO KIRCHHEIMER AN INTRODUCTION TO HIS LIFE AND WORK BY JOHN H. HERZ AND ERICH HULA IT MAY BE STRANGE to start the analysis of a great achievement with a …”
books.google.com/books?id=-j6__aSWB4cC&pg=PR9&lpg=PR9&dq=Otto+Kirchheimer&source=bl&ots=6X_PyURZZc&sig=uViNL4eTDHw74JWgDaeaiV8P89s&hl=en / “Otto Kirchheimer (1905-1965) was born in Germany, emigrated to France in 1933, and then to the United States in 1937. Educated in the Universities of …” http://www.amazon.com/Punishment-Social-Structure-Georg-Rusche/dp/0765809214 / “Kirchheimer, Otto. 1961 Political justice : the use of legal procedures for political ends / by Otto Kirchheimer Princeton University Press, Princeton, …” nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn2193983 / “Kirchheimer, Otto. “Marxism, Dictatorship and the Organization of the … In Politics, Law, and Social Change: Selected Essays by Otto Kirchheimer, …” chicagopoliticalworkshop.webs.com/summerreadingschedule.htm

“Those who helped in the OSS fighting fascism were Herbert Marcuse, Franz Neumann , Otto Kirchheimer, Arkady Gurland, Leo Lowenthal and Friedrich Pollack. …” http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-9706/msg00061.html >>>”Regarding the work done by various members of the Frankfurt School’s Institute for Social Research for the OSS, I would like to mention the following: first of all, Mr. Stahlman, “the lying-through-its-teeth but crucial 1948 book ‘The Authoritarian Personality’ by Horkheimer and Adorno” was not written in 1948, but 1950. It was not written by Horkheimer and Adorno, but by Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson and R. Nevitt Sanford. Next time you might want to at least get some of the info straight before advising someone to “head on back to the library”. / As for the Frankfurters in the OSS, I suggest you yourself trot back and refresh your memory as to the facts of the case. Those who helped in the OSS fighting fascism were Herbert Marcuse, Franz Neumann, Otto Kirchheimer, Arkady Gurland, Leo Lowenthal and Friedrich Pollack. Horkheimer and Adorno were not involved in OSS, and none of these gentlemen went on to CIA. / Franz Neumann—Deputy Chief of the Central European Section of OSS; consultant at Board of Economic Warfare (Wiggershaus,1994:301). / Otto Kirchheimer/Arkady Gurland—Staff Member at OSS in 1943 (Ibid.) / Lowenthal—Consultant at Office of War Information in 1943 (Ibid.) / Friedrich Pollack—Consultant at Dept. of Justice in the Anti-trust Division in 1943. / Marcuse had a more colorful career. See Barry Katz’s HERBERT MARCUSE AND THE ART OF LIBERATION (1982). In autumn of 1942, Marcuse’s article for the Institute of Social Research, “Elimination of German Chauvinism” put Marcuse in touch with OSS. During Nov. and Dec. of 1942, Marcuse takes a position at Bureau of Intelligence of the Office of War Information. In 1943 he joined the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS.

“During this two-year period Marcuse’s group worked on the analysis of political tendencies in Germany, and he was specifically assigned to the identification of Nazi and anti-Nazi groups and individuals; the former were to be held accountable in the war crimes adjudication then being negotiated between the four Great Powers, and the latter were to be called upon for cooperation in post-war reconstruction. For his source materials he drew upon official and military intelligence reports, extensive OSS interviews with refugees, and special OSS agents and contacts in occupied Europe; it was his duty to evaluate the reliability of each of the items of intelligence that reached him, and assemble them all into a coherent analysis op points os strength and weakness in the Reich.”(Katz,1980:116). / At the end of 1944, Marcuse, Neumann and Kirchheimer were involved in preparing a Denazification Guide. In 1945 Marcuse was coordinating the investigations of Nazis. In Oct. 1945, Marcuse transferred to the State Dept. and continued work on the Denazification program. When the anti-fascist struggle became an anti-communist struggle and purge, Marcuse’s group in the State Dept. was dismantled. By the middle of 1947, only native-born Americans were allowed to head research divisions. A dissenting voice in the State dept. from 1948 to 1949, Marcuse finally left the government. Absolutely nothing in any of the information I have seen can support your statement, Mr. Stahlman, that “This is very much the point of the collaboration of the Frankfurt School with the OSS and CIA on these same projects to promote irrationality.” / 5. There is indeed a connection between the Nazi program of Rauschgiftbekaempfung (Fight against Drugs) and the War on Drugs in the U.S. I draw my methodology from Hermann Fahrenkrug’s instructive essay, “Alcohol and the State in Nazi Germany 1933-1945” [in DRINKING: Behavior and Belief in Modern History, ed. S.Barrows & R.Room, Berkeley: U.C.Press, 1991,pp.315-334.

“The term refers to Otto Kirchheimer, a Jewish Socialist, lawyer and sociologist, close first to Carl Schmitt and after 1933 to the Frankfurt school who …” http://www.bpb.de/files/2Q4E1Y.pdf >>> The term refers to Otto Kirchheimer, a Jewish Socialist, lawyer and sociologist, close first to Carl Schmitt and after 1933 to the Frankfurt school who emigrated to the U.S. and became an observer of political parties on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1965 he predicted that catch-all parties similar to the Republicans and Democrats in the U.S. would also start forming in Western Europe where class structure and ideology once dominated the party systems. Now, Kirchheimer argued, parties would become voting machines bereft of any ideology in which ordinary party members no longer had a say. Instead professional politicians who took turns managing the state set the tone, and there was no opposition to speak of.

1While Kirchheimer’s essay was being debated in Germany at the end of the 1960s, the Christian Democrats and the Social Democrats were forming a grand coalition. Some lawmakers from the two major parties contemplated introducing a majority voting system, which would, in turn, promote a twoparty system. Many voters saw a political cartel of Christian and Social Democrats looming on the horizon that could only be actively countered by an extra-parliamentary opposition. According to critics, because both mainstream parties would compete against each other, their agendas would slowly but surely meet in the middle. The Christian and Social Democrats in Germany would therefore become centrist parties appealing to all classes and religions, employing simple slogans to compete for the same voters. / If that prediction had entirely come to pass, Germany’s political landscape today would not include the pro-business Free Democratic Party (FDP), the Greens or The Left party. But Kirchheimer was not completely wrong: The differences between the large parties have steadily diminished since the 1950s. The Red/Green policies of Germany’s ruling coalition from 1998 until 2005 could have easily been made by a Christian Democratic chancellor. In fact, a conservative chancellor – Angela Merkel − is now continuing those policies. Kirchheimer was also right in predicting the parties would lose increasingly more members and lose sight of their nominal goal of determining social currents in an effort to fill political and administrative posts.

“Later T.W. Adorno, Otto Kirchheimer,. Franz Neumann and others joined the Institute, which also supported theorists like Korsch and. Walter Benjamin. …” http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/criticaltheorycrisisofsocialtheory.pdf “émigré political scientist Otto Kirchheimer (1905–65). Their description of the German concept of state emphasizes authoritarianism, which played a large …” ire.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/22/4/411.pdf “theorist Otto Kirchheimer), Marcuse engaged in an intensive interdisciplinary effort to uncover and ‘eliminate the root causes that had produced fascism’. …” http://www.unm.edu/~ithomson/QuestTech.pdf “How many of them were considered serious interlocutors by such Marxists as Georg Lukács, Walter Benjamin, Otto Bauer, Otto Kirchheimer, and Franz Neumann? …” bostonreview.net/BR26.3/balakrishnan.html “13 Jun 2001 … Institut members Friedrich Pollock and Otto Kirchheimer were among the first to characterize the new “state capitalism” of the 1930s (8). …” www.noemalab.com/sections/ideas/ideas_articles/holmes_personality.htmlKIRCHHEIMER, OTTO (1905–1965), political scientist
Papers, 1928–1965, 6 ft. (GER–006)
Correspondence with Arcadij Gurland, Hajo Holborn, Franz Neumann, Hans Simons, Hans Staudinger, and others, 1937–1965; research and lecture notes, undated; offprints, book reviews, and ephemera, 1928–1965. Kirchheimer worked for the Institute for Social Research and the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS), and was later a professor of political science at the New School for Social Research. The University Libraries also have annotated books from Otto Kirchheimer’s library. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/emigre.htm#emigre

**********************************************************************

139.) Kisch, Guido (1933-1944) 415 W. 115th St., NYC / Law

 

Guide to the Papers of Guido Kisch (1899-1985) 1799-1981 bulk 1920-1971

The Guido Kisch Collection documents the life and professional activities of Guido Kisch, teacher, researcher, and scholar in the field of Legal History. It also documents personal and to a lesser degree professional lives of some of the other members of the Kisch family, most notably his brother, Bruno Kisch, a cardiologist, and their father, Alex Kisch, who was a rabbi and a writer. The collection includes brochures, booklets, clippings, correspondence, financial documents, minutes, notes, off prints, photographs, printed materials, and writings. Languages: The collection is in German and English with some French, Czech, Italian, and Yiddish. Quantity: 33 linear feet Identification: AR 787 Repository: Leo Baeck Institute

Biographical Note / Guido Kisch, scholar, jurist, historian, and collector was born on January 22, 1889, in Prague, Austria-Hungary, (now Czech Republic) into a prominent family of rabbis, physicians and scholars. He was the son of Rabbi Alex Kisch and his wife Charlotte, née Polatschek. His father, Alex Kisch, was a rabbi and a writer who in the late 1870s became the first rabbi of Zurich. In 1886 Rabbi Alex Kisch succeeded Dr. Stein at the Meisel Synagogue, and became a leader of the Jewish community in Prague. / Guido Kisch’s earlier schooling took place at the Altstädter Staatsgymnasium in Prague. He then continued his studies at the University of Prague and later at the University of Leipzig, where he studied jurisprudent, political science, history and philosophy, under Adolph Wach, Rudolph Sohm, Ludwig Mitteis, Karl Lamprecht, and Karl Bűchner. While at the University of Prague, between 1909 and 1912 he passed three State Examinations in Law and Political Studies required for the qualification of judge.

Upon the completion of his studies Guido Kisch served as a substitute judge at the Austrian Country Court in Prague, from 1913 to 1915. / In 1915 Kisch began his distinguished career as a teacher and scholar of legal history when he was appointed Privatdozent and became an instructor in legal history at the University of Leipzig. In 1920 he was appointed Professor Ordinarius of History of Law and Political Theory at the University of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), where he taught until 1922. In 1922 Kisch became Professor Ordinarius of History of Law and Political Theory at the University of Halle, where in 1925 he was elected Dean of the Faculty of Law and Political Science. He held this position until 1933, when he was dismissed by the Nazi Government. / In addition to his teaching positions, Guido Kisch was also the Director of the Law School Library at the University of Königsberg from 1921 to 1922 and Chief Librarian of the Law Library at the University of Halle from 1925 to 1933.

After his dismissal from the University of Halle he briefly taught at the University of Prague and at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland). Unable to find a permanent academic position, Professor Kisch immigrated to the United States in 1935. / After his immigration Professor Kisch settled in New York, where he taught Jewish History at the Jewish Institute of Religion/Hebrew Union College. During this period he also lectured at a number of universities in the United States as well as abroad. Among others, he was a visiting professor at Lund University, Sweden (1949, 1952-1959) and University of Basel, Switzerland (1954). He was also a research associate at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana (1953-1959), Columbia University, and briefly at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York. In 1962, he returned to Europe. He settled in Basel, Switzerland and taught at the Law School at the University of Basel. /Guido Kisch was a member of several professional organizations, such as Mediaeval Academy of America, American Historical Association, International Congress of Historical Sciences, American Numismatic Society, and American Numismatic Association. / Additionally, he was involved with a number of Jewish cultural and historical institutions. Most notably, Professor Kisch was a founding member of the Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews, of which he was elected Honorary President in March, 1962 and also served as Vice President of the American Academy for Jewish Research (1953-1959).

Guido Kisch wrote extensively on the subjects of humanism, medieval and German jurisprudence, history and German-Jewish relations. He published over four hundred titles, including academic works, essays, articles, and reviews. Many of his articles and reviews were published in Historica Judaica, a scholarly journal that he started in 1938 and remained its editor until 1961. / Before his immigration in 1935 his research was focused on the history of medieval German law. During this period he produced such major works as German Arrestation Process (1914), Studies on Medieval German Private and Business Law (1923), Rechts und Sozialgeschichte der Juden in Halle, 1686-1739 (1930), and Jews and University of Prague (1935).

During his American period he shifted the focus of his research towards the history of German-Jewish relationship seen through the prism of the German-Jewish jurisprudence. He had authored a number of important works pertaining to this subject, including Sachsenspiegel and the Bible (1941), Jews in Medieval Germany (1949), and Jewry-Law in Medieval Germany. Another important work from this period is In Search of Freedom (1949), dedicated to the history of immigration of the Jews from Czechoslovakia to the United States.

In his later period, Guido Kisch became interested in the humanistic aspect of jurisprudence. He dedicated a number of works to explore this little known characteristic of jurisprudence. Major works from this period include Zasious und Reuchlin, and Melanchthons Rechts- und Soziallehre. Other important works from this period include Judentaufen (1973), Studies in Medallic History (1975), and Lebensweg eines Rechtshistorikers-Erinnerungen (1975). / Furthermore, Guido Kisch compiled a number of bibliographies, such as Alex Kisch, and Bruno Kisch, Medieval Conception of the Jew, Deutsch-Judaistische Bibliographie, Medieval Legal History of the Jews among other. / Guido Kisch remained active after retiring from his position at the Basel University. He kept close contact with scholars and students and continued writing for scholarly journals and other publications. He died in 1985, at the age of 96 in Basel, Switzerland.

Scope and Content Note / The Guido Kisch Collection documents the life and professional activities of Guido Kisch, researcher, historian, and teacher. It also documents personal and to a lesser degree professional lives of some of the other members of the Kisch family, most notably his brother, Bruno Kisch, a cardiologist, and their father, Alex Kisch, a rabbi and writer. The collection includes brochures, booklets, clippings, correspondence, financial documents, minutes, notes, off prints, photographs, printed materials, and writings. / Documents comprising the collection reflect various aspects of Guido Kisch personal and professional life, teaching, and research and writings in the fields of jurisprudence, legal history, Jewish law, law history, German-Jewish relations, and to a lesser extent his interest in collecting and numismatics.

Organizations: Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion / Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau / Leo Baeck Institute, New York / Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews / Universität Basel http://findingaids.cjh.org/index2.php?fnm=GuidoKisch&pnm=LBI

“Guido Kisch (a historian of law) was already in the United States and became a visiting faculty member of the Rabbi Stephen S. Wise’s Jewish Institute of Religion in New York.”

**********************************************************************

140.) Klatzkin, Jacob / Jakob (1933-1934, 1938-1944) 147 w. 55th St., NYC / Philosophy

Jakob Klatzkin, Yakov/Jakub Klaczkin (Hebrew: יעקב קלצקין; Russian: Яков Клачкин, October 3, Kartoz-Brioza/Kartusskaya Berëza (now Belarus), 1882March 26, 1948, Vevey, Switzerland) was a Jewish philosopher, publicist, publisher.

He was a son of Rabbi Eliyahu Klaczkin (1852, Oshpol – 1932, Jerusalem). / His birthplace Kartoz-Brioza was the place his father was called rabbinate. He rejected the notion of chosenness for the Jewish people, either religious or secular. He argued that the only meaningful goal for Zionism was regaining the land of Israel and normalizing the conditions of Jewish existence also that assimilationist were “traitors to their Judaism”. He criticized Ahad Ha-Am for the notion that morality was the key to Israel’s uniqueness. He believed that ethic is universal, not the possession of a particular people. He maintained that the spiritual definition of Judaism denied freedom of thought and led to national chauvinism. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Klatzkin

Otzar Munahim ha’Philosophim Encylopedia Judaica ~ Encylopedia Judaica “The chief editors were Jakob Klatzkin and Ismar Elbogen. Ten volumes from Aach to Lyra appeared before the project halted due to the Nazi persecutions. …” http://www.jewishdictionary.org/jewish-encyclopedia/index.html Advice for Nazi Speakers on the Jews (August 1935) “The Jew Dr. Jakob Klatzkin had the following to say at a student meeting in Basel, according to the newspaper Wahrheit of 1 June 1918: “We are not Germans, …” http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/rim3.htm Arndt Engelhardt “established on the initiative of Nahum Goldmann (1895–1982) and Jakob Klatzkin. (1882–1948). Both were involved early in the Zionist movement and shared a …” http://www.informaworld.com/index/758360756.pdf What Color are Jews – ConspiracyPenPal Newsletter “7 May 2005 … Influential Zionist writer Jakob Klatzkin, in his German-language book Crisis and Decision (Krisis und Entscheidung, 1921), writes: “We are …” http://www.conspiracypenpal.com/columns/color.htm Abstract Condition and Concrete Community “Jacob Klatzkin once defined the real issues of the debate in terms of two questions: whether the Diaspora can, in fact, survive, and whether it deserves to …” http://www.hagshama.org.il/en/resources/view.asp?id=1589 Greatest Hoax Ever Perpetrated On The Jewish People Zionism And … “It was Jacob Klatzkin, the second of two political Zionist ideologists in Germany at the time, where the Jews of Germany were enjoying full political and …” http://www.rense.com/general54/hoaoxo.htm

**********************************************************************

141.) Klein, Jacob (1934, 1938-1941) St. Johns College, Annapolis, Md. / History of Mathematics & Mathematical Physics

Jacob Klein (1899-1978). “In 1920, Strauss, at the University of Marburg, met Jacob Klein (1899-1978), a Jew born in Libau, Russia, who was studying philosophy, mathematics and physics. According to Strauss, Klein “stood out among the philosophy students not only by his intelligence but also by his whole appearance: he was wholly non-provincial in a wholly provincial environment. I was deeply impressed by him and attracted to him. I do not know whether I acted merely in obedience to my duty or whether this was only a pretence: I approached him in order to win him over to Zionism. I failed utterly. Nevertheless, from this time on we remained in contact…” Hans-Georg Gadamer was similarly impressed by Klein. Gadamer seems to have met Strauss at Marburg’s Library, where Gadamer was in charge of procuring the books requested by students, at around this time.” http://cato1.tripod.com/strauss-bio.htm

As a Dean of the College in the 1950s, Jacob Klein explained, … And, again quoting Jacob Klein, “Liberal education is in itself its own end. …” http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/about/SF/convocation06.shtml / This volume of essays on topics in the history of mathematics consists of the term papers … and the estimable Jacob Klein is hardly a model of clarity; …” http://www.math.rutgers.edu/courses/436/Honors02/about.html / We recently came across the following anecdote about Jacob Klein, an eminent liberal artist and once dean of St. John’s College, at this blog: During WWII …” educationandliberty.com/category/tolerance/ unintentionally facetious story about jacob “jascha” klein / “Greek Mathematical Thought and the Origin of Algebra (Jacob Klein). The heart of mathematics : an invitation to effective thinking (Michael P Starbird) …” acm.cs.uoregon.edu/~hilbert/browse.php

**********************************************************************

142.) Koebner, Richard (1933-1942) Hebrew U / History

The Richard Koebner Minerva Center for German History – The Hebrew University – Mount Scopus / Richard Koebner (Professor, Breslau/Jerusalem)

Richard Koebner (* 29. August 1885 in Breslau; † 28. April 1958 in London) war ein deutscher Historiker. / Der Sohn eines Arztes besuchte in Breslau das Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium. Zusammen mit Franz Landsberger bestand er 1903 das Abitur. Anschließend studierte er an den Universitäten in Berlin, Breslau und Genf. Seine Lehrer in Berlin waren die Historiker Hans Delbrück und Alfred Herrmann, die Philosophen Max Dessoir und Alois Riehl, der Nationalökonom Ignaz Jastrow und der Althistoriker Eduard Meyer, in Breslau der Soziologe Werner Sombart, der Psychologe Hermann Ebbinghaus und in Genf der Pädagoge Paul Duproix. Im Jahre 1911 promovierte Koebner in Berlin mit der Arbeit Die Eheauffassung des ausgehenden deutschen Mittelalters. / In Breslau habilitierte er sich 1919 (Die Anfänge des Gemeinwesens der Stadt Köln. Zur Entstehung und ältesten Geschichte des deutschen Städtewesens, Bonn 1922). Ab 1920 lehrte Richard Koebner an der Universität Breslau als Privatdozent, ab 1924 als außerordentlicher Professor. In den Wintersemestern 1930 bis 1933 übernahm er die Vertretung für Hermann Aubin, der in Kairo eine Gastprofessur für Mediaevistik angenommen hatte. Durch sein eigenes breit gefächertes Studium waren Koebners Vorlesungen häufig interdisziplinär geprägt. So gehörten zu seinen Seminaren auch Interpretationen des Thomas von Aquin. Im April 1933 wurde Koebner aufgrund des NS-Gesetzes zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums aus dem Universitätsdienst entlassen. Er erhielt eine Berufung auf den Lehrstuhl für neue Geschichte an die junge Hebräische Universität Jerusalem und emigrierte.

Die Zeit in Jerusalem / An seiner neuen Wirkungsstätte gründete er ein historisches Institut, dessen Leitung er übernahm. Nachdem er britischer Staatsbürger geworden war, konnte er noch einige Male nach Deutschland reisen und dort begonnene Studien fortsetzen. Richard Koebner gehörte zu den Intellektuellen und Künstlern, die der jüdische „Kaufhauskönig” Salman Schocken – 1934 von Berlin nach Jerusalem emigriert – um sich scharte. Zu diesem Kreis zählten der Historiker Hans Kohn und die Philosophen Hans Jonas und Leo Strauss; auch der Architekt Erich Mendelsohn und die Schriftstellerin Else Lasker-Schüler bereicherten das gesellschaftliche Leben deutscher Juden in der Emigration. Koebner schuf durch sein Wirken die Grundlagen der israelischen Geschichtswissenschaft. Zur Erinnerung an ihn wurde 1980 das „Richard-Koebner-Zentrum für Deutsche Geschichte” an der Universität Jerusalem gegründet. Seit 1986 ist Moshe Zimmermann Direktor dieses Zentrums. 1954 emeritierte Koebner und zog nach London, wo er seine letzten Lebensjahre verbrachte. Ein Jahr vor seinem Tode erschien in Berlin in deutscher Sprache sein Werk Vom Schönen und seiner Wahrheit. Eine Analyse ästhetischer Erlebnisse, das er zusammen mit seiner Ehefrau Gertrud verfasst hatte.

Werke Werke von Richard Koebner im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek / Deutsches Recht und deutsche Kolonisation in den Piastenländern, in: Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (VSWG) 25 / 1932, S. 313-52 / Locatio. Zur Begriffssprache und Geschichte der deutschen Kolonisation, in: Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte (ZVG) Schlesien 63 / 1929, S. 1-32 / Hermann Reincke-Bloch, in: ZVG Schlesien 63 / 1929, S. 343-349 / Das Problem der slawischen Burgsiedlung und die Oppelner Ausgrabungen, in: ZVG Schlesien 65 / 1931, S. 91-120 / Despot and Despotism: Vicissitudes of a Political Term, in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 14 / 1951, S. 275-302. / Empire, New York 1961 / Imperialism: the story and significance of a word, 1840-1960, Cambridge 1964 http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Koebner

History of European Ideas : Jacob Talmon between Zionism and Cold … “His mentor, Richard Koebner (1885–1958), professor of history at the University of Breslau, a highly acculturated Prussian Jew, arrived a year later, …” linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0191659907000794 Imperialism: History of a Political Word “19 Feb 2006 … It is primarily the work of historian Richard Koebner, however he did not complete it before he died and it was ultimately compiled by …” troy.gnn.tv/blogs/13111/Imperialism_History_of_a_Political_Word?r=5 Joshua Prawer – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “5 Jun 2007 … His professor, Richard Koebner, an Anglophile historian of imperialism, set him on the course of studying the crusader colonies in the Holy …” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Prawer Refugee Historians and the German Historical Profession between … “College, New York); Richard Koebner (Professor, Breslau/Jerusalem); Hajo Holborn. (Privatdozent. Heidelberg/Yale); Ernst Kantoro- …” www.historicum.net/fileadmin/sxw/Lehren_Lernen/Schulze/Refugee_Historians.pdf

**********************************************************************

143.) Kopal, Zdenek (1937-1944) Mass Inst. of Technology / Astronomy

 Zdenek Kopal (born on 4 April 1914 in Litomyšl, Czechoslovakia; died on 23 June 1993) was a Czech-born astronomer who directed an international project, financed by the U.S. Air Force, to photograph and map the entire surface of the Moon by using the refracting telescope at the Pic du Midi Observatory in southern France.

Zdeněk Kopal (Czech pronunciation: [ˈzdɛɲɛk ˈkopal]; April 4, 1914June 23, 1993) was a Czech astronomer who mainly worked in England. / Kopal was born and grew up in Litomyšl (Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic). In his early astronomical career, he studied variable stars and in particular close eclipsing binary stars. He attended Cambridge University and later went to Harvard College Observatory not too long before the outbreak of World War II. After the war he became head of the astronomy department at the University of Manchester. He later assisted NASA with the Apollo program as an external expert. / He was Editor-in-Chief of the journal Astrophysics and Space Science since its foundation in 1968 until his death in 1993. / The asteroid 2628 Kopal was named in his honour. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zden%C4%9Bk_Kopal

Obituary: Professor Zdenek Kopal / F. D. KAHN Saturday, 26 June 1993

Zdenek Kopal, astronomer: born Litomysl 4 April 1914; Professor of Astronomy, Manchester University 1951-81, (Emeritus) 1981-93; married 1938 Alena Muldner (three daughters); died Wilmslow, Cheshire 23 June 1993.

ZDENEK KOPAL, the former Professor of Astronomy at Manchester University, made crucial discoveries in astrophysics, in particular in the study of the development of closely neighbouring stars, known as close binaries.

In many ways Kopal’s life exemplified this century’s upheavals, both in politics and in astronomy. He was born in the Austrian Empire, before the foundation of Czechoslovakia, and he was educated at Prague University, before modern astrophysics had taken hold. One of his teachers at Prague was the celebrated astronomer E. Finlay Freundlich, who made it his life’s work to verify the predictions of Einstein’s General Relativity, notably the deflection of starlight by the sun. Kopal had the same attitude to scientific questions: take nothing for granted if you cannot verify it. This philosophy stood him in good stead.

In 1938 Kopal worked with AS Eddington in Cambridge, and in the same year moved to the United States and held various appointments at Harvard and MIT. This time was crucial in his development as a scientist: for his wartime work he needed to be able to follow the propagation of shock waves in situations of military importance, and this task caused him to perfect his numerical skills. His book on Numerical Analysis, published in 1955, later became a classic of its kind.

Kopal was most at home with scientific questions that were clearly defined and amenable to mathematical treatment. At first it might appear that the study of close binaries was just of this kind. Take two nearby stars, calculate how much light each emits and then work out what the observer will record when one of the stars eclipses the other. But then other questions arise: how much of its partner’s light is reflected and how much is absorbed by each of the stars, how does this affect their appearance?

There was considerable urgency in treating this range of problems. The climax of this research was reached in the 1950s, just when Kopal was at the height of his powers, and when he had taken up his professorship in Astronomy at Manchester University. The phrase that Kopal himself used was that eclipsing binaries provided the ‘royal road’ to an understanding of the structure and evolution of stars. At the time this was perfectly true, for no one then had any conception of the extent to which advances in theoretical astrophysics and in computational methods would change our understanding. So the best way of probing the inside of the star was to watch the perturbation caused by a nearby companion.

After a while it became clear that this programme would never work, because in a real sense there is something very special about close binaries. The discovery was made by Kopal himself; I got the impression that he did so much against his will and so he deserves twice the credit. To my mind it ranks with the most important developments in astrophysics of the 20th century, along with pulsars, quasars and gravitational lenses. What Kopal realised was that close binaries apparently defied the general rule that massive stars evolve faster than less massive stars. He produced incontrovertible evidence of many pairs where the lighter star had the larger radius and therefore would be deemed to be more evolved.

The solution to the puzzle was soon found: the presence of such a close companion caused the more evolved star to spill over its material, which would then fall on to its companion, and increase its mass. These close binaries now provide the explanation for many phenomena such as cataclysmic novae and X-ray binaries. Kopal, the classical astronomer, had become the founding father of some real gee-whizz astrophysics.

Of course Kopal made many other contributions: in the years before the Apollo programme he organised a comprehensive effort funded by the USAF to map the Moon from the Earth, he established a lively school of disciples in Manchester where he taught students from all over the world the mysteries of his craft. In 1962 he became the founder and first editor of the journal Icarus and in 1969 he founded an independent journal, Astrophysics and Space Science, a kind of Virgin Atlantic opposed to the (almost) monopoly of the big boys, like Astrophysical Journal. Later he founded the Moon journal, now expanded into Earth, Moon and Planets, and every year or two he would bring out another book on some astronomical topic, written in his inimitable style.

But the event which defined the man took place in Prague, in 1967, when his second daughter, Zdenka, got married. The wedding took place just after the 13th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. Many of his colleagues came to the ceremony, and to the splendid reception held later in the Czech pavilion, that had been repatriated from the World Fair in Brussels. But for the wedding itself Kopal had managed to persuade the authorities to reopen the cathedral in Prague Castle, and it was one of the most moving events imaginable. It seemed as if the population of the town took the opportunity to attend an act of worship in their cathedral which had been out of action for so long. It was a sign that the Czech population could not be held down for ever. (Photograph omitted) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-professor-zdenek-kopal-1494001.html

Zdenek Kopal papers Date range: 1950s-1980s.

Zdenek Kopal (1914-1993) was Professor of Astronomy at Manchester University from 1951 until 1981, during the era of the `Space Race’, the development of satellites and lunar exploration. Kopal was born in Litomysl in eastern Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) and his interest in astronomy developed during adolescence (he published his first paper at the age of sixteen).

He taught at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during and after the Second World War, before moving to Manchester in 1951 to take up the new Chair of Astronomy. Kopal developed the Astronomy Department to achieve international status, and was instrumental in establishing the Manchester Lunar Programme, the lunar mapping project which paved the way for the Apollo missions.

He is credited with producing 396 papers on optical astronomy.

The papers include a very large quantity of correspondence, including letters from fellow astronomers in the United States and the Soviet Union, early lunar charts and glass-plate photographs of the moon, numerous drafts of papers by Kopal, and a large collection of offprints and copies of articles by other scientists on satellite programmes, lunar exploration, and co-operation between British, American and Russian astronomers. / Finding aids / Unlisted. / See Zdenek Kopal, Of Stars and Men: Reminiscences of an Astronomer (Bristol, 1986). http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/specialcollections/collections/guide/atoz/kopal/

(Philosophy Terms), 4 vols. (printed in Berlin) “Baruch Spinoza, Hermann Cohen, and Crayim” (printed in Berlin) “Mishnat Rishonim“, a philosophical anthology (printed in Berlin) “Shkiyatahayim, philosophical discussions” (printed in Berlin) Truhmim, Zutot, and Mishnat Ahonim, and Tavim (printed after he died) “Krisis und Entscheidung im Judentum” (Berlin, 1921) “Probleme des modernen Judentums” (Berlin, 1918; Berlin, 1930) “Hermann Cohen” (Berlin, 1821) “Der Erkenntnistrieb als Lebens und Todesprinzip” (Zurich, 1935) “German Encyclopaedia Judaica” (completed 10 of 15 intended volumes http://www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/kurenets/k_pages/klaczko.html

Advertisements

Leave a Comment »

No comments yet.

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URI

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.

%d bloggers like this: