Displaced Scholars

Marcuse – Nathan

177.) Marcuse, Herbert (1939-1944) Office of Strategic Intelligence / Philosophy

The hippie movement was founded and led by two Jewish freemasons, Herbert Marcuse and Jerry Rabin. [sic] They did everything in their power to introduce young people to the use of drugs and to dissonant rock music, thus silencing their protests against the stagnant masonic society. http://www.worldsocialism.org/articles/marcuse_professor_behind_1960s.php

Herbert Marcuse (1898 – 1979) philosopher, political theorist and sociologist, and was the most explicitly political and left-wing member of the Frankfurt School, continuing to identify himself as a Marxist, a socialist, and a Hegelian throughout his life. /…was a member of a Soldiers’ Council that participated in the aborted socialist Spartacist uprising. / …in 1933 Marcuse joined the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, emigrating from Germany that same year, going first to Switzerland, then the United States, where he became a naturalized citizen in 1940.

During World War II Marcuse first worked for the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) on anti-Nazi propaganda projects. In 1943 he transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. His work for the OSS involved research on Nazi Germany and denazification. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section, retiring in 1951.

In 1952 he began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University, then at Harvard University, then at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965, where he taught philosophy and politics, and finally (by then he was past the usual retirement age), at the University of California, San Diego. Many radical scholars and activists were influenced by Marcuse, &c. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Marcuse

Herbert Marcuse was born in Berlin on July 19,1898. After completing his Ph.D. thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922, he moved to Berlin, where he worked in the book trade. He returned to Freiburg in 1929 to write a habilitation (professor’s dissertation) with Martin Heidegger. In 1933, since he would not be allowed to complete that project under the Nazis, Herbert began work at the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, a Marxist-oriented think-tank (as we might say today).

He emigrated from Germany that same year, going first to Switzerland, then the United States, where he became a citizen in 1940. During World War II he worked for the US Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA), analyzing intelligence reports about Germany (1942-45-51). / In 1952 Herbert began a university teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia and Harvard, then at Brandeis from 1954 to 1965, and finally (already retirement-age), at the University of California, San Diego. http://www.marcuse.org/herbert/index.html

His critiques of capitalist society (especially his 1955 synthesis of Marx and Freud, Eros and Civilization, and his 1964 book One-Dimensional Man) resonated with the concerns of the leftist student movement in the 1960s. Because of his willingness to engage seriously with (and support) student protesters, Herbert soon became known as “the father of the new left” (a term he disliked and rejected). He had many speaking engagements in the US and Europe in the late 1960s and in the 1970s. He died on July 29, 1979, after suffering a stroke during a visit to Germany. http://cartoon.iguw.tuwien.ac.at/christian/marcuse/welcome.html

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178.) Maritain, Jacques (1940-1945) Columbia U / Philosophy

Jacques Maritain (1882–1973), French philosopher and political thinker, was one of the principal exponents of Thomism in the twentieth century and an influential interpreter of the thought of St Thomas Aquinas. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/maritain/

Jacques Maritain (18 November 1882–28 April 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. Raised as a Protestant, he converted to Catholicism in 1906. An author of more than 60 books, he is responsible for reviving St. Thomas Aquinas for modern times and is a prominent drafter of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Pope Paul VI presented his “Message to Men of Thought and of Science” at the close of Vatican II to Maritain, his long-time friend and mentor. Maritan’s interest and works spanned many aspects of philosophy, including aesthetics, political theory, the philosophy of science, metaphysics, education, liturgy and ecclesiology.

Maritain was born in Paris, the son of Paul Maritain, who was a lawyer, and his wife Geneviève Favre, the daughter of Jules Favre, and was reared in a liberal Protestant milieu. He was sent to the Lycée Henri IV. Later, he attended the Sorbonne, studying the natural sciences; chemistry, biology and physics.

At the Sorbonne, he met Raïssa Oumancoff, a Russian Jewish émigré. They married in 1904. Furthermore, she, a noted poet and mystic, was his intellectual partner who participated with his search for truth. Raissa’s sister, Vera Oumancoff, lived with Jacques and Raissa for almost all their married life.

Soon, he became disenchanted with scientism at the Sorbonne, for it could not, for him, address the larger existential issues of life. In light of this disillusionment Jacques and Raïssa made a pact to commit suicide together if they could not discover some deeper meaning to life within a year. Happily they were spared from following through on this because, at the urging of Charles Péguy, they attended the lectures of Henri Bergson at the Collège de France. Along with his deconstructionism of scientism, Bergson instilled in them “the sense of the absolute.” Then, through the influence of Léon Bloy, they converted to the Roman Catholic faith in 1906.

In the fall of 1907 the Maritains moved to Heidelberg, where Jacques studied biology under Hans Driesch. Hans Driesch’s theory of neo-vitalism attracted Jacques because of its affinity with Henri Bergson. During this time, Raïssa fell ill, and during her convalescence, their spiritual advisor, a Dominican friar named Fr. Humbert Clérissac, introduced her to the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. So enthusiastic, she, in turn, exhorted her husband to examine the saint’s writings. In Thomas, he found a number of insights and ideas that he had believed all along, he wrote:

“Thenceforth, in affirming to myself, without chicanery or dimunition, the authentic value of the reality of our human instruments of knowledge, I was already a Thomist without knowing it…When several months later I came to the Summa Theologiae, I would construct no impediment to its luminous flood.”

From the Angelic Doctor (the honorary title of St. Aquinas), he was led to “The Philosopher” as St. Thomas christened him, Aristotle. Still later to further his intellectual development, he read the neo-scholastics.

Beginning in 1912, Maritain taught at the Collège Stanislas and later moved to the Institut Catholique de Paris. For the 1916–1917 academic year, he taught at the Petit Séminaire de Versailles. In 1933, he gave his first lectures in North America in Toronto at the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. He also taught at Columbia University; at the Committee on Social Thought, University of Chicago; at the University of Notre Dame, and at Princeton University.

From 1945 to 1948, he was the French ambassador to the Vatican. According to Jesuit historian Giovanni Sale, Maritain was one of the creators of the “black legend” on Pope Pius XII‘s alleged silence during the Second World War. [1]

Afterwards, he returned to Princeton University where he achieved the “Elysian status” (as he puts it) as a professor emeritus in 1956. Raissa Maritain died in 1960. After her death, Jacques published her journal under the title “Raissa’s Journal.” From 1961, Maritain lived with the Little Brothers of Jesus in Toulouse, France. He had had an influence in the order since its foundation in 1933. He became a Little Brother in 1970.

Learning the death of his friend Maritain, Pope Paul VI cried. Jacques and Raïssa Maritain are buried in the cemetery of Kolbsheim, a little French village where he had spent many summers at the estate of his friends, Antoinette and Alexander Grunelius, etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Maritain 

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179.) Mayer, Carl (1933-1941, 1944) New School for Social Research / Sociology

“Some of these essays, including Mayer’s last work on Marx and Weber printed herein, were first presented at the Department of Sociology’s Carl Mayer …” http://www.newschool.edu/centers/socres/vol42/issue424.htm * “Carl Mayer Germany / sociology. Alfredo Mendizabal Spain / international law, philosophy of law. Julie Meyer Germany / sociology …” http://www.newschool.edu/nssr/subpage.aspx?id=28792 * Fifty years in the sociological enterprise: a lucky journey “… including graduate students in sociology, had access to a second group of emigre” … and the sociologists Carl Mayer, Albert Salomon, and Hans Speier. …”
books.google.com/books?id=xH3pawyUsj0C&pg=PA34&lpg=PA34&dq=%22Carl+Mayer%22+%2B+sociology&source=bl&ots=EP7dfqr7pd&sig=91P8Ro5G5h7JupPpWAap2nyUj-c&hl=en * “(Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Hobart and William Smith College) in … Carl Mayer. He taught briefly at the New School, and from 1956 till 1964 at …” http://www.springerlink.com/index/P0073236J40X7874.pdf * Erich Von Kahler Papers “16 Apr 2004 … “In reply to Dr. Carl Mayer’s Anti-judaism reconsidered.” T.cc. with h. corr. …. “Toward Communication between Sociology and Anthropology. …” library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger048.htm

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180.) Meissner, Karl Wilhelm (1937-1944) Purdue, Lafayette, Ind. / Physics

Karl Wilhelm Meissner (18911959), physicist specializing in hyperfine spectroscopy. He spent the greater part of his career in the United States at Purdue University, in West Lafayette, Indiana. / …student of the experimentalist Wilhelm Röntgen and the theoretician Arnold Sommerfeld…studied spectroscopy with Friedrich Paschen…in 1916 he became an assistant to Edgar Meyer at the University of Zurich…Meissner traveled to the United States in the spring of 1938 to lecture at 10 universities…From three offers in the United States, Meissner selected a position as assistant professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in November of that year…From 1941, to the end of his career, Meissner was at Purdue University, first as a visiting professor and then, after naturalization, a full professor and director of the spectroscopy laboratory. -wikip.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Meissner

Karl Wilhelm Meissner (December 15, 1891 in Reutlingen, WürttembergApril 13, 1959 on the cruise ship Herzthrombose sailing to Europe) was a German-American physicist specializing in hyperfine spectroscopy. He spent the greater part of his career in the United States at Purdue University, in West Lafayette, Indiana.

After Meissner’s abitur at the Humanistischen Gymnasium, in 1910, he began the study of physics and mathematics at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen. After three terms, he went to the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich as a student of the experimentalist Wilhelm Röntgen and the theoretician Arnold Sommerfeld. After one year at Munich, he returned to Tübingen to be able to study spectroscopy with Friedrich Paschen. While still a student in 1914, Meissner was able to prove the existence of oxygen lines in the solar spectrum. He was awarded his doctorate in 1915, on a thesis with the title Interferometrische Wellenlängenbestimmung im infraroten Spektralbereich. In 1916 he became an assistant to Edgar Meyer at the University of Zurich, under whom he completed his Habilitation, in 1918, with the Habilitationsschrift ***le Untersuchungen des Neonspektrums. The following year, he married the Polish physicist Doctor Janka Kohn.

Career / In the summer of 1924, Meissner became a First Assistant at the Physics Institute of the University of Zurich. Here he studied the spectra of indium, gallium, neon, argon, and caesium, the arc spectrum of lead (spectrum of neutral or non-ionized lead), the Stark effect of neon, and general problems of detecting radiation.

The change from Zurich to the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main occurred in 1925. Meissner was appointed extraordinarius professor of physics there, when Walter Gerlach left for the University of Tübingen. Shortly thereafter, he received calls to the Donro Institute at Davos and the Physikalisch Technische Rechsanstalt in Berlin; he declined both. After the retirement of Martin Brendel and with the support of Richard Wachsmuth, Meissner was appointed ordinarius professor of astronomy and director of the University’s observatory. Upon retirement of Wachsmuth, Meissner was appointed as his successor to the chair for astronomy and director of the astronomy institute in 1932.

Spectral lines are broadened due to random movements and collisions of the emitting atoms; this limits resolution. To reduce these broadening mechanism, Meissner, with K. F. Luft and independently of R. Minkowski and H. Bruck, in 1935, developed the technique of observing particle beams perpendicular to their direction of flow. With this technique, Meissner could investigate the hyperfine structure of spectra, which are due to the magnetic moment of the atomic nuclei. This is an area of experimental research which would occupy Meissner for many years.

Meissner’s wife, Janka, was Jewish. Due to persecution of the Jews by the Hitler regime, circumstances caused Meissner stepped down as director in June 1937. While he continued his teaching responsibilities, he was forced to resign in August of that year. Unable to find an industry position, Meissner traveled to the United States in the spring of 1938 to lecture at 10 universities. Circumstances in Germany, including Nazi regulation of travel, did not allow him to take Janka with him. From three offers in the United States, Meissner selected a position as assistant professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in November of that year. In early 1939, Janka died from cancer.

From 1941, to the end of his career, Meissner was at Purdue University, first as a visiting professor and then, after naturalization, a full professor and director of the spectroscopy laboratory. In 1942, he married Hanna Hellinger, the sister of a former mathematician colleague at Frankfurt am Main, Ernst Hellinger, who had emigrated from Germany in February 1941. Hanna taught from 1944 to 1965 as professor of sociology and social science at Purdue.

Outside of physics, Meissner’s interests also included history, literature, and languages. He spoke German, English, French, and Italian, and was able to also read Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.

On 9 April 1959, Meissner sailed from New York City for Europe on the ship Herzthrombose to visit his sister and niece, visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures), teach in the summer semester at the Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, and attend an interferometry conference in London. During the voyage, he died on 13 April. His wife, Hanna, died thirty years later on 8 February 1989, in Lafayette, Indiana.

Selected Literature * K. W. Meissner and K. F. Luft, Ann. d. Physik 28 667 (1937) / Karl Wilhlem Meissner Application of Atomic Beams in Spectroscopy, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14 68 – 78 (1942). Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. / K. W. Meissner, L. G. Mundie, and P. H. Stelson Structure of the 2D Terms of the Arc Spectrum of Lithium, Phys. Rev. 74 (8) 932 – 938 (1948). Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. Received 23 June 1948. When the article was published, Mundie was at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, Maryland. / G. V. Deverall, K. W. Meissner, and G. J. Zissis Hyperfine Structures of the Resonance Lines of Indium (In115), Phys. Rev. 91 (2) 297 – 299 (1953). Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Received 3 April 1953. / K. W. Meissner and V. Kaufman, Calcium atomic beam source and interference beyond two-meter retardation, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49 942- (1959)

Bibliography * Karl Meissner – History of Physics at Purdue / Karl Meissner – Science News

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181.) Mengelberg, Käthe (1933-1934, 1939-1944) NJ College for Women / Economics

The history of the social movement in France, 1789-1850 [by “Introduced, edited, and translated by Kaethe Mengelberg. Author: Lorenz von Stein; Käthe Mengelberg Publisher: [Totowa, N.J.] Bedminster Press [1964] OCLC: …” http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/404953

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182.) Meyer, Julie (1933-1934, 1937, 1940-1944) New School for Social Research / Sociology

“Meyer later … immigrated to the USA in 1937 and taught sociology at the New School. …”

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183.) Meyer-Baer, Kathi (1940-1944) New Rochelle, NY / Musicology

I am planning two books on focused aspects of this general subject (DS). The first is a biography, much of which I have now written, of Kathi Meyer-Baer, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in musicology (Leipzig 1915). Unable to find a position in the German academic world as a woman and a Jew, she earned a living as a music journalist in the 1920s, published as an independent scholar, and managed the largest private music library on the continent. In 1938 she fled with her husband and child to France, then to the United States two years later, where she encountered many of the same professional hurdles she had found in Europe. Nevertheless, she produced a large and varied output of books and articles, and maintained a lively presence in the American musicological community. A biography is long overdue. The second book, the research for which is also largely completed, will be an account of the involvement of the two great American and British academic rescue committees of the 1930s in helping émigré music scholars establish themselves in their host countries. http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Music/people/facultypage.php?id=10317

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184.) Michael, Franz H. (1938-1944) U of Washington (Seattle) / Chinese History & Far Eastern Affairs

Overview of the Franz H. Michael interview / Hoover Institution Archives * Stanford University * Stanford, California

Abstract: Relates to the development of Chinese studies in the United States, and to various aspects of modern Chinese history. Interview conducted by Ramon H. Myers. Includes photocopy of a memorandum by F. H. Michael, 1944, relating to the United States Army Specialized Training Program on the Far East conducted at the University of Washington during World War II. http://www.oac.cdlib.org/data/13030/xn/kt2k4032xn/files/kt2k4032xn.pdf

Guide to the Franz H. Michael Papers 1948-1964, 1984

Franz H. Michael was a professor of Far Eastern political science and Chinese history, and assistant director of the Far Eastern and Russian Institute at the University of Washington.

Michael was born and educated in Germany and attended the Universities of Hamburg, Berlin, and Freiburg. At Berlin he received his Sinological degree, and at Freiburg his doctor’s degree in political science and law. In 1933, he became an attaché in the German foreign service but left Germany in the same year after Hitler’s seizure of power. From 1934 to 1938, Michael taught at the National Chekiang University in Hangchow, China, and went on the inland march with this university after the start of the Japanese attack in 1937. In 1939, he came to the United States and became a research associate at the Johns Hopkins University. In 1942, Michael joined the staff of the University of Washington, where he was, during the war, in charge of an army specialized training program. In 1947, he undertook a journey to China for the university with the object of visiting Chinese universities, buying books for the Far Eastern Library at the university, and exploring the Chinese Mongol and Tibetan frontier areas. http://www.lib.washington.edu/Specialcoll/findaids/docs/uarchives/UA19_10_2940MichaelFranzH.xml

A Guide to the Franz H. Michael papers “Franz H. Michael (1907-92) was director of The George Washington University’s ( GW) Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies from 1969 to 1972. …” http://www.aladin.wrlc.org/gsdl/collect/faids/import/MS0440.shtml * Rule by Incarnation by Franz H Michael * China and the Crisis of Marxism-Leninism, Franz H. Michael

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185.) Minkowski, Rudolf (1933-1942) Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Ca. / Physics

astronomer. His father was the physiologist Oskar Minkowski. His nuncle was Hermann Minkowski….his father: “a famous scientist of jewish descent. / Discovery of the role of pancreas in diabetes [through experimentation on dogs etc.] …his uncle: Hermann Minkowski (June 22, 1864January 12, 1909) was a German mathematician of Jewish and Polish descent, who created and developed the geometry of numbers and who used geometrical methods to solve difficult problems in number theory, mathematical physics, and the theory of relativity. / By 1907 Minkowski realized that the special theory of relativity, introduced by Einstein in 1905 and based on previous work of Lorentz and Poincaré, could be best understood in a four dimensional space, etc. http://www.plicht.de/chris/12minkow.htm

Minkowski, Rudolf (1895-1976) / Rudolf Leo Bernhard Minkowski was born in Strasbourg on May, 28th 1895 and died in Berkeley, California, on January 4th 1976. He was the son of Oskar Minkowski, a professor for pathology. Rudolf married Luise Amalie David (1902 – 1978) in Leipzig, Germany, in 1926. They had one daughter and one son, Eva and Hermann.

Minkowski went to school in Köln (Cologne), Greifswald, and Breslau. He started to study Physics at the University of Breslau in 1913 and planned to go to Berlin after the first year. These plans were disturbed by the war from 1914 to 1918, in which he served in the German Army. After the war he studied in Berlin, returned to Breslau, finished his studies and wrote his doctoral thesis under the supervision of Rudolf Ladenburg in 1921. After working in Goettingen for a year with James Franck and Max Born he moved to Hamburg in October 1922 and worked at the University there until 1935 when he left for the United States. From 1935 until 1960 he worked at the Mt. Wilson and Mt. Palomar Observatories as a research astronomer and from 1961 to 1965 at the University of California in Berkeley.

Minkowskis emigration was not planned. In 1933 Hitler took over power in Germany. The ‘National Socialist Party of Germany’ changed several laws, allowing only persons with aryan ancestors in official places like universities. In 1935 Minkowski lost his title of professor and was no longer allowed to teach. From then on he worked in Hamburg as an normal employee. His father-in-law, judge Alfons David at the court in Leipzig, was dismissed as early as 1933. Walter Baade, who had left Hamburg and was working at the Mt. Wilson Observatory since 1931, had made available a post for Minkowski as research assistant. He accepted and took a year leave from Hamburg, planning to return after this time. In California Minkowski received a letter from the University of Hamburg, informing him that he will be dismissed by April, 1st 1936. Within this year Minkowski was offered to stay at Mt. Wilson as a regular staff member. Later, in making good for the loss of his title under the national socialistic regime, Minkowski was appointed professor emeritus of the University of Hamburg, effective January 1954.

Minkowskis work can be divided into two phases. Prior to his emigration he worked on spectroscopic problems, in the US he made outstanding observations in the field of Astronomy and Radioastronomy. His doctoral thesis was the first paper of a series on specific problems in spectroscopy. These papers were in part prepared together with his teacher Ladenburg and published in the magazine for physics (Zeitschrift fuer Physik). Minkowskis main topic was the width of spectral lines, broadened by pressure and self absorption. Beside that he published papers on the behavior of electrons in metal vapor and the process of electrons passing through atoms (together with Hertha Sponer, 1924). Until 1935 Minkowski published 17 papers and two additional articles in books on physics. His last paper during his time in Hamburg described the atom beam method for determining the fine structure of spectral lines (Die Intensitaetsverteilung der im Molekularstrahl erzeugten Spektrallinien). This paper was published together with H. Bruck.

As early as 1933 Minkowski had worked on an astronomical problem, the structure of features in the spectrum of the Orion nebula (M42). In the US his knowledge on spectroscopy was most useful while studying astronomical objects. The close collaboration with Walter Baade, who emigrated to the US from Hamburg in 1931, led to a very rapidly growing number of publications. These include further investigations on the Orion nebula, systematic studies on supernovae in other galaxies and supernova remnants in our Milky Way. Minkowskis classification of Supernovae into type I and type II described a useful tool in determining the distances in space (ApJ 89, 156 [1939] and PASP 53, 224 [1941]). Shortly after the Crab nebula was discovered to be a supernova remnant by Oort and Mayall, Minkowski and Baade identified the small central star. Minkowski also worked on the distribution of emission nebula in our galaxy and on the spectral features of comets. He discovered the comet 1950 b Minkowski. Another celestial object carries his name: Minkowskis Footprint. It is a small and faint nebula (3″ by 8″) in the constellation of Cygnus.

From 1950 on radio astronomy caught the attention of Minkowski. Together with Walter Baade he started to locate optical counterparts to new found radio sources. The first extragalactic optical counterpart found for a radio source was Cygnus A in 1954. Later he also worked on the distribution of galaxies in space and found in 1960 the galaxy (3C 295) with the then highest redshift at z=0.48 (ApJ 132, 908 [1960]) An anecdote tells that he developed the plate the same night and, after finding the high redshift, joined other astronomers in the library of the 200 inch dome with a bottle of Whisky; the rest of the night was declared ‘overcast’. The spectrum was made during the very last observing night Minkowski had at the 200 inch telescope. This redshift remained the highest for 15 years until Quasars were found. Minkowski was responsible for the photographic sky survey of the National Geographic Society at Mt. Palomar, today known as the POSS, the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. This work was done with the 48″ Schmidt camera on Mt. Palomar and covered the northern hemisphere from the celestial north pole to -33 deg. latitude.

After his retirement from the Mt. Wilson and Mt. Palomar observatories he received an invitation from the Radio Astronomical Laboratory in Berkeley. There he worked from 1961 to 1965, then retiring the second time.

Minkowski was member of the Royal Astronomical Society, the US National Academy of Sciences; he received the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1961 and a Dr. h.c. at Berkeley in 1968. Click here for List of Bruce Medallists.

References / 1. RECHENBERG, H., in: Neue Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 17, p. 540. 2. OVERBYE, D., Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos, [1991] p. 63-66. 

—Rudolph Minkowski (born Rudolf Leo Bernhard Minkowski) (May 28, 1895January 4, 1976) was a German-American astronomer. His father was the physiologist Oskar Minkowski. His uncle was Hermann Minkowski.

Rudolph studied supernovae and, together with Walter Baade, divided them into two classes (Type I and Type II) based on their spectral characteristics. He and Baade also found optical counterparts to various radio sources. / He headed the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, a photographic atlas of the entire northern sky (and down to declination -22°) up to magnitude 22. / He co-discovered the Apollo asteroid 1620 Geographos, and also discovered Planetary Nebula M2-9. / He won the Bruce Medal in 1961. The crater Minkowski on the Moon is named after him and his uncle.

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186.) Morgenthau, Hans Joachim (1933-1944) U of KC / Law

Like Henry Morgenthau, Hans Joachim was also from Bavaria, and an obvious relation. Funny how that isn’t mentioned though, in any of their biographies I’ve seen, &c.

Hans J. Morgenthau (1904-1979) was a political scientist who taught at the University of Chicago and at the Graduate Center at the City University of New York. His deceptive ‘classic’ text, “Politics Among Nations”, was the leading work for students of international politics for over a quarter century.

—Hans Joachim Morgenthau (1904 – 1980) was a pioneer in the field of international relations theory. He was born in Coburg, Germany, and educated at the universities of Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich. He taught and practiced law in Frankfurt before fleeing to the United States in 1937 as the Nazis came to power in Germany. His experiences with Nazism seem to have influenced his later work in international relations theory, where he argued passionately in favor of a more scientific approach to politics, in contrast with the way the Nazi party came to imbue political science with a nationalist streak. Morgenthau became professor at the University of Chicago. Along with E.H. Carr, he is one of the main authors of the realist school in the 20th century. This school of thought holds that nation-states are the main actors in international relations, and that the main concern of the field is the study of power. His book Politics Among Nations defined the field of international relations theory in 1948 as it heralded the post–World War II paradigm shift in American thinking about diplomacy. Politics Among Nations emphasized the power interests of states as the driver behind the relations between states. The period before WWII was on the other hand defined by idealism that focused on values. http://www.hansmorgenthau.com/bio (via Wikipedia

—Hans Joachim Morgenthau (19041980) was a pioneer in the field of international relations theory. He was born in Coburg, Germany, and educated at the universities of Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich. He taught and practiced law in Frankfurt before fleeing to the United States in 1937, after several interim years in Switzerland and Spain, as the Nazis came to power in Germany. His experiences with Nazism seem to have influenced his later work in international relations theory, where he argued passionately in favor of a more scientific approach to politics, in contrast with the way the Nazi party came to imbue political science with a nationalist streak.

Morgenthau became a professor at the University of Chicago. Along with E.H. Carr, he is one of the main authors of the realist school in the 20th century. This school of thought holds that nation-states are the main actors in international relations, and that the main concern of the field is the study of power.

His book Politics Among Nations defined the field of international relations theory in 1948 as it heralded the post–World War II paradigm shift in American thinking about diplomacy. Politics Among Nations emphasized the power interests of states as the driver behind the relations between states. The period before WWII was on the other hand defined by idealism that focused on values.

Principles of Morgenthau’s Realism / While ‘realism’ is used generically to refer to a closely associated, and growing, body of work; it has taken various forms since Thucydides’ ‘History of the Pelopponesian War’. The realism developed by Morgenthau and his contemporary E H. Carr is referred to however as Modern Realism, not to be mistaken of course for its close relative Neo-Realism.

1. Political realism believes that politics is governed by objective laws with roots in human nature.

2. The main signpost of political realism is the concept of interest defined in terms of power which infuses rational order into the subject matter of politics, and thus makes the theoretical understanding of politics possible.

3. Realism assumes that interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid but not with a meaning that is fixed once and for all. Power is the control of man over man.

4. Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action. It is also aware of the tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action.

5. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe. It is the concept of interest defined in terms of power that saves us from moral excess and political folly.

6. The political realist maintains the autonomy of the political sphere; he asks “How does this policy affect the power of the nation?” Political realism is based on a pluralistic conception of human nature. A man who was nothing but “political man” would be a beast, for he would be completely lacking in moral restraints. But, in order to develop an autonomous theory of political behaviour, “political man” must be abstracted from other aspects of human nature.

“The statesman must think in terms of the national interest, conceived as power among other powers. The popular mind, unaware of the fine distinctions of the statesman’s thinking, reasons more often than not in the simple moralistic and legalistic terms of absolute good and absolute evil.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Morgenthau

–German-born American political scientist and historian noted as a leading analyst of the role of power in international politics.

Educated first in Germany at the Universities of Berlin, Frankfurt, and Munich, Morgenthau did postgraduate work at the Graduate Institute for International Studies in Geneva. He was admitted to the bar in 1927 and served as acting president of the Labour Law Court in Frankfurt. In 1932 he went to Geneva to teach public law for a year, but because of Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in Germany in 1933, he stayed on until 1935. In 1935–36 he taught in Madrid, and in 1937 he took up residence in the United States, where he became a naturalized citizen in 1943. He served on the faculties of Brooklyn (New York) College (1937–39), the University of Missouri–Kansas City (1939–43), the University of Chicago (1943–71), the City College of the City University of New York (1968–74), and the New School for Social Research (1974–80).

In 1948 Morgenthau published Politics Among Nations, a highly regarded study that presented what became commonly known as the classical realist approach to international politics. In this work, Morgenthau maintained that politics is governed by distinct immutable laws of nature and that states could deduce rational and objectively correct actions from an understanding of these laws. Central to Morgenthau’s theory was the concept of power as the dominant goal in international politics and the definition of national interest in terms of power. His state-centred approach, which refused to identify the moral aspirations of a state with the objective moral laws that govern the universe, maintained that all state actions seek to keep, demonstrate, or increase power. He called for recognition of the nature and limits of power and for the use of traditional methods of diplomacy, including compromise.

A contributor to numerous scholarly periodicals and journals of opinion, Morgenthau was also the author of Scientific Man vs. Power Politics (1946), In Defense of the National Interest (1951), Dilemmas of Politics (1958), The Purpose of American Politics (1960), Politics in the Twentieth Century (1962), and Truth and Power (1970).

——

Hans J. Morgenthau (1904-1979) was a political scientist who taught at the University of Chicago and at the Graduate Center at the City University of New York. His classic text, “Politics Among Nations”, was the leading work for students of international politics for over a quarter century.

Hans J. Morgenthau was born on February 17, 1904, in Coburg, a small town in central Germany which is now part of northern Bavaria. His father was a doctor who discouraged his son from attending the University of Berlin, saying: “You are out of your mind. You’ll never get in. Go to a lesser school instead.” His father’s attitude created in the son an inferiority complex, a fear of being rejected, and an undisguised shyness that persisted throughout his life. If his father was tyrannical and authoritarian, his mother was warm and supportive. He remembered being ridiculed when, having graduated first in his class, he spoke at a founder’s day ceremony celebrating the crowning of the duke of Coburg. When he made his presentation, the duke and other nobility displayed their anti-Semitism by holding their noses, thus suggesting that all Jews smelled bad.

As a schoolboy during World War I and its aftermath, the young Morgenthau witnessed the defeat of a powerful and confident German army and the flight of that government’s leaders. The Weimar regime which followed lacked an understanding of power and a broadly representative political base. The former ruling class, who were dominant in communities like Coburg, propounded the “stab in the back” thesis – that is, the fighting ended with no foreign troops on German soil; therefore, the nation had not been defeated in war, but was brought down by traitors within – socialists, trade unionists, Jews, Catholics, liberals, and Freemasons. The Weimar regime was destroyed by its inability to govern and to use power and by forces of irrationalism in politics such as blaming military defeat and rampant inflation primarily on the Jews. Morgenthau recalled his mother going to market with a basketful of paper money and his physician father accepting butter, eggs, chickens, or textiles rather than worthless money for his services.

For his advanced studies the young Morgenthau first enrolled in 1923 at the University of Frankfort but later transferred to the University of Munich. He never studied at the University of Berlin. His earliest intellectual interests were philosophy and literature, a harbinger of his determination to see the general in the particular in his approach to history. At first his goal was to become either a writer, a professor, or a poet. In choosing his vocation he was propelled by a deeper concern. In September 1923 he wrote: “My hopes for the future move in two directions. I hope for the lifting of the pressure to which I am exposed by the social environment, and I hope to find a direction and purpose for my future activities. The latter cannot be realized before the former is fulfilled.” He explained that his relationship with the environment was determined by three facts: he was a German, a Jew, and had matured following World War I. He vowed to resist the immorality of anti-Semitism and to place service to some higher cause ahead of amassing riches.

In his studies philosophy, with its minute epistemological destructions, left Morgenthau dissatisfied, so at the University of Munich he turned to the study of law. Diplomatic history was a companion interest, and Bismarck’s Realpolitik offered him a framework that confirmed certain “isolated and impressionistic judgments on … foreign policy.” He also found in Max Weber’s thought the model for an approach to political science. He pursued postgraduate work at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, was admitted to the bar, and became acting president of the labor law court in Frankfurt. From 1932 to 1935 he taught public law at the University of Geneva and then in Madrid from 1935 to 1936. He came to the United States in 1937 without sponsors or friends. Subsequently he held faculty appointments at Brooklyn College (1937-1939), the University of Kansas City (1939-1943), the University of Chicago (1943-1971), the City College of New York (1968-1975), and the New School for Social Research (1975 to his death).

His first major work, Scientific Man vs. Power Politics, challenged the prevailing “belief in the power of science to solve all problems and, more particularly, all political problems.” Drawing on Reinhold Niebuhr, he called for a renewal of faith in “those intellectual and moral faculties of man to which alone the problems of the social world will yield.” He also challenged the scientific approach to politics which was dominant in the Charles E. Merriam era of political science at Chicago. However, the university’s leadership, and especially its president, Robert M. Hutchins, encouraged Morgenthau while differing with him on such questions as the prospect for world government.

With Politics Among Nations, his classic text published in 1948, Morgenthau sought to define the core principles of politics and international politics. He wrote: “Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim. The struggle for power is universal in time and space and is an undeniable fact of experience.” With this work Morgenthau declared war on legalistic and moralistic interpretations and sought to provide a theory of international politics. He also argued, however, that international morality and law were constraints on the struggle for power.

In Defense of the National Interest (1951) he contended that moral principles must be linked with national interest and called for a reconsideration of the approach of the founding fathers. General moral principles must be filtered through the national interest if an effective political morality is to be attained, he argued.

In The Purpose of American Politics (1960) he reviewed the influence of transcendent purpose on American foreign policy from the beginnings of the Republic. By the mid-1960s he had emerged as the foremost early critic of the Vietnam War, warning that nations must never place themselves in a position from which they cannot retreat without a loss of face and from which they cannot advance without unacceptable risk.

Morgenthau’s main contribution was in providing a framework for understanding foreign policy. He translated a European understanding of politics and foreign policy to fit the American experience. He defended the uniqueness of American democracy while emphasizing its enduring moral and political foundations. He applied his realist philosophy to problems such as human rights, stressing the need for prudence and practical morality. He tried to explain the interconnection and tensions between abstract moral principles and political necessities in world politics.

Further Reading / The most recent Morgenthau books are his classic text, Politics Among Nations, revised by Kenneth W. Thompson (sixth edition, 1985). Other Morgenthau books include In Defense of the National Interest (revised edition, 1982), which sets forth his framework for analyzing foreign policy; The Purpose of American Politics (1982); and Morgenthau and Thompson, Principles and Problems of International Politics (1981), which presents text and readings of classic writings in international politics. http://www.answers.com/topic/hans-morgenthau

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187.) Nathan, Otto (1933-1944) Ogonts Manor Apts., Philadelphia, Pa./ Economics

Otto Nathan (1893-1987) was an economist who taught at Princeton University (1933-35), New York University (1935-42), Vassar College (1942-44), and Howard University (1946-52). / Dr. Nathan was a close friend of Albert Einstein for many years and was designated by Einstein as co-trustee of his literary estate with Helen Dukas.

Otto Nathan was the author of the following books: Nazi War Finance and Banking Our Economy in War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1944. Paperback: ASIN B000J0VXBG. / The Nazi Economic System: Germany’s Mobilization for War. New York: Russell & Russell, 1971. Hardcover textbook: ISBN 0-846-21501-2, ISBN 978-0-84621-501-1 / Einstein on Peace. Albert Einstein; Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden, editors and translators. Preface by Bertrand Russell. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Nathan

Vassar College Encyclopedia entry, The Friendship of Albert Einstein and Otto Nathan.

[obit:] DR. OTTO NATHAN, AN ECONOMIST Published: Friday, January 30, 1987

Dr. Otto Nathan, an economist who served as executor and co-trustee of the estate of Albert Einstein, died of heart failure Tuesday at Van Etten Hospital in the Bronx. He was 93 years old and lived in Manhattan.

Dr. Nathan, who was born July 15, 1893, in Bigen, Germany, was an economic adviser to the Weimar Republic from 1920 to 1933. He served as a German delegate to the World Economic Conference in Geneva in 1927.

With the rise of Hitler to power, Dr. Nathan fled to the United States, where he joined the faculty of Princeton University in the economics department. It was at Princeton that he began his friendship with Dr. Einstein.

Dr. Nathan was the sole executor of Dr. Einstein’s estate after the scientist’s death in 1955 and was co-trustee of his literary property along with Dr. Einstein’s secretary, Helen Dukas, who died in 1982.

In the last three decades of his life, Dr. Nathan’s primary interest was the Einstein archive, which he trebled in size. The archive was turned over to the Hebrew University of Israel in 1982.

Dr. Nathan, who earned doctorates in economics and law at Freiburg and Munich Universities, taught economics at Princeton, New York University, Howard University and Vassar College. He also served as a consultant on economic literature to the Library of Congress.

In the mid-1950’s, Dr. Nathan had difficulty obtaining a passport and later became a target of the House Un-American Activities Committee.

He declined to answer questions from the committee, saying he believed that ”no Congressional committee has the right to inquire into the political beliefs of American citizens.”

In 1955, he forced the State Department, by court action, to grant him a passport after he swore that he had never been a member of the Communist Party. And in 1957, he won an acquittal on a contempt of Congress charge stemming from the confrontation with the House committee.

Dr. Nathan was the author of numerous books, including ”The Nazi Economic System: Germany’s Mobilization for War,” and ”Nazi War Finance and Banking,” both in 1944. He also helped Heinz Horden write ”Einstein on Peace” in 1961.

Dr. Nathan, who became a naturalized citizen in 1939, is survived by a niece, Doris Nathan, of Manhattan. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/01/30/obituaries/dr-otto-nathan-an-economist.html

1952. Otto Nathan was a life-long pacifist and socialist who escaped Nazi Germany to serve in the Hoover and Roosevelt administrations. He was one of Albert Einstein’s closest friends and the executor of his literary estate. At the height of the McCarthy period, Otto Nathan was denied a passport by the State Department.

I had lost my teaching position because of alleged left-wing associations and I hoped that, if I could go overseas, I could find some professional work. My lawyers and I argued a long time about whether or not I should sign an affidavit that I had never been a Communist. I’m not proud of it, but finally I did it. In spite of that affidavit, the State Department continued asserting that I had been a Communist. They also held against me my friendship with Einstein who was considered to be on the left, himself. Mine was the first passport case lawyers took to court. The court ordered the State Department to grant me a passport. They refused. In the appeals court procedure, they said there was a danger that, if I went to Europe, I might assassinate the President of France. At that point, the chief judge said he had heard enough. He ordered the State Department to give me a “quasijudicial” hearing within three days, at which time I would be permitted to cross-examine the witnesses against me. Rather than let me question their witnesses, the informers, they gave me the passport. http://www.hrcr.org/ccr/nathan.html

John Foster Dulles, Appellant, v. Otto Nathan, Appellee – 225 F.2d … “Justia US Court of Appeals Cases and Opinions – 225 F.2d 29 – John Foster Dulles , Appellant, v. Otto Nathan, Appellee.” cases.justia.com/us-court-of-appeals/F2/225/29/417695/ Vassar History, 1962-1963 “Dr. Otto Nathan, a German born economist, lectured at Vassar on “The Economies of Disarmament.” 1963, Feb. 24. William Goldberg, English author of Lord of …” historian.vassar.edu/chronology/1962_1963.html

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