Displaced Scholars

Nehring – Olschki

188.) Nehring, Alfons (1933-1943) Fordham U (NYC) / Philology

“… and Sigmund Feist of the current knowledge about the Indo-Europeans had appeared in the early twentieth century and where Alfons Nehring had completed …” http://books.google.com/books?id=dmynAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&dq=Alfons+Nehring&source=bl&ots=XJAS6SGfFg&sig=-p9-95DZkHTIJ3KWWxyE-AhF9D0&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Alfons%20Nehring&f=false * Plato and the Theory of Language, in Tradition * The myth of the “Aryan tribe” – Asatru zum selber Denken – die … “[4] Otto Schrader, Sigmund Feist, Alfons Nehring, Wilhelm Brandenstein, Wilhelm Koppers. S. Scholz 1994, Translation: B. Kühne 2003 …” http://www.nornirsaett.de/the-myth-of-the-aryan-tribe/ * “Alfons Nehring analyzed the non-Indo-European influences that he thought supported an Indo-European origin somewhere between the Altaic people and the …” http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=103786391

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189.) Neisser, Hans (1933-1941, 1944) New School for Social Research / Economics

Hans Neisser, 1895-1975

Hans Neisser may today be best remembered by modern economists for his 1932 critique of the Walras-Cassel model which helped prompt the Vienna Colloquium into action. However, Neisser’s other contributions to monetary theory (esp. what he called “circuit velocity”, e.g. 1928, 1931, 1933), structural growth and cycle theory (e.g. 1936, 1961) and econometrics – and philosophy (e.g. 1971) – bear out Schumpeter’s description of him as “one of the most brilliant economic minds” of his generation.

However, Neisser’s early achievements were shadowed by the tumult into which his career was thrown. As a German Jew, social democrat and researcher at the Kiel Institute, Neisser was among the first to be expelled during the Nazi ascendancy – in spite of the extraordinary efforts made by the Kiel directors to retain him. He subsequently moved to the United States in 1933, where he became the first Jew to receive a position at the University of Pennsylvania. However, seven years later, he was still untenured because “he couldn’t get along with anyone”. He gravitated to the New School for Social Research, where he joined his old Kiel colleagues, Adolph Lowe, Gerhard Colm and Jacob Marschak, where he remained for the rest of his career.

Major works of Hans Neisser * “Zur Theorie des wirtschaftlichen Gleichgewichts”, 1927, Kölner sozialpolitische Vierteljahresschrift / Der Tauschwert des Geldes, 1928. / “Lohnsenkung als Heilmittel gegen Arbeitslosigkeit?”, 1930, Magazin der Wirtschaft. / “Des Kreislauf des Geldes”, 1931, WWA / “Kredit und Konjuktur nach J.M. Keynes”, 1931, WWA / “Lohnhöle und Beschäftigungsgrad im Marktgleichgewicht”, 1932, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv. / ” Umlaufsgeschwindigkeit der Bankdepositen”, 1933, Handworterbuch des Bankwesens / “Offentliche Kapitalagen in ihrer Wirkung auf Beschaftigungsgrad”, 1933, Economic Essays in honor of Gustav Cassel / “General Overproduction”, 1934, JPE. / “Commentary on Keynes”, 1936, Social Research / Some International Aspects of the Business Cycle, 1936. / “Investment Fluctuations as Causes of the Business Cycle”, 1937, Social Research / “Permanent Technological Unemployment: Demand for commodities is not demand for labor”, 1942, AER / “Government Net Contribution and Foreign Balance as Offset to Savings”, 1944, RES. / “The Significance of Foreign Trade for Domestic Employment”, 1946, Social Research. / “Keynes as an Economist”, 1946, Social Research / National incomes and international trade: a quantitative analysis with F. Modigliani, 1953. / “Balanced Growth under Constant Returns to Scale: Some comments”, 1954, Econometrica / “Critical Notes on the Acceleration Principle”, 1954, QJE / “Depreciation, Replacement and Regular Growth”, 1955, EJ / “Cyclical Fluctations and Economic Growth”, 1961, Oxford EP / On the Sociology of Knowledge: an essay, 1965. / “Competitive Equilibrium: Existence and approach”, 1968, JPE. / “Are Space and Time Real?”, 1971, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.

Resources on Hans Neisser * HET Pages: The Walras-Cassel-Wald System, Structural Growth Theory http://homepage.newschool.edu/het//profiles/neisser.htm

HANS PHILIPP NEISSER
PAPERS, 1918-1971

(GER-069)Paul Nettl (1889-1972) (1889–1972) “25 juil 2004 … notice biographique de Paul Nettl (1889-1972) musicologue autrichien émigré aus États Unis.” http://www.musicologie.org/Biographies/n/nettl_paul.html

Born into a distinguished professional family, Hans Neisser achieved a considerable reputation during the German phase of his career–first as economic advisor to the Weimar Government, then as coeditor of one of the leading German business magazines, and after 1927 as Deputy Director of Research in the Institute of world Economics at Kiel University. It was there that he published his first major work, Der Tauschwert des Geldes, one of the very few books written outside of the Anglo-American orbit that Keynes quoted with full approval in his Treatise on Money. From the same period dates his generally acknowledged critique of the fundamentals of the Walrasian system.

Neisser’s first academic appointment in this country was as Professor of Monetary Theory in the University of Pennsylvania, followed during the war by a responsible position in the Office of Price Administration. In 1943 he joined the Graduate Faculty of the New School, where lie served in a leadership capacity, including tenure as Chairman of the Department of Economics, until his retirement in 1965.

Neisser’s teaching and research covered almost the entire scope of economics. Centering on economic theory, his contributions extended to international economics, the history of economic thought, and many fields of applied economics, where he drew on his wide practical experience. Neisser early acknowledged econometrics as an effective tool of empirical research. In collaboration with Franco Modigliani he published in 1953 National Income and International Trade, to date the most comprehensive econometric investigation of: The world-economic relations during the interwar period. Also pioneering was his essay on “The Pricing of Consumer Durables,” which appeared in 1959 in Econometrica. Under Neisser’s guidance the New School became the first teaching institution in the metropolitan area to establish a training center for econometric study. His work ranges from studies on the New Economics to essays on Marx; from an examination of general overproduction to a critical analysis of the theory of games.

35 Interview with John Marshall and D. H. Stevens September 19, 1941, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 54, Folder 633. 36 Undated handwritten note, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 54, Folder 634. 37 Interview John Marshall, Claude Levi-Strauss, May 17, 1945, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 53, Folder 630. 38 Commemoration brochure, November 16, 1949, Archives of the New School for Social Research.

A third aspect of RF collaboration with the New School took the form of support for research projects carried out under the auspices of the Institute of World Affairs (IWA). 16

Suggestions concerning the founding of the IWA were formulated as early as 1941,39 with the intention that it should be the research branch of the Graduate Faculty and would incorporate several projects already financed by the Rockefeller Foundation. In addition to the refugee scholars at the Graduate Faculty, the Institute would include American scholars, who would constitute half the work force. Research would be interdisciplinary; the IWA would thus constitute a platform for cooperation and integration between researchers of different nationalities and scientific disciplines. By associating students as research assistants, the Institute would also become an important aspect of their training. An official proposal formulated by Adolph Lowe, insisted on the importance of the future in the “mastering of world affairs”. He argued that: “Our country’s future welfare will depend on our knowledge and interpretation of the facts about foreign nations.”40

39 Interview Thomas B. Kittredge avec Max Ascoli, February 4, 1941, memorandum on the reorganisation of the New School, Max Ascoli, March 10, 1941, both in RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 383, Folder 4526. 40 Proposal for an Institute of World Affairs, Adolphe Lowe, June 23, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 382, Folder 4516. 41 Inaugural pamphlet, November 17th, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 383, Folder 4521. 42 AJ to JHW, June 8, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 53, Folder 628.

The inaugural meeting of the IWA took place on November 17, 1943.41 Administrative costs for the first five years were to be covered by a donation from Doris Duke Cromwell.42 Although an RF subsidy for the institution as a whole had not been forthcoming, several individual projects were financed. The first of these was a project coordinated by Hans Neisser on “The International Aspects of a Policy of Full Employment”, which received a $7,500 grant-in-aid. Among the many other projects receiving RF subsidy and developed under the auspices of the IWA are: the study of “Totalitarian Communication in Wartime” directed by Hans Speier and Ernst Kris (as from 1941), “Religion in Germany Today” directed by Carl Mayer (as from 1953) and a large number of “War and Peace Studies” (involving a number of researchers, among them Max Ascoli, Arthur Feiler, Jakob Marschak, Hans Speier, Hans Staudinger, Frieda Wunderlich, begun in 1940 and continued under the 17

IWA). Public reaction to the research was variable; letters can be found in the files which throw doubt on the objectivity of the European (mainly German) scholars and question the effect of their possible political and religious alliances.43 Government agencies did not react in the same manner and certain scholars were offered employment in government agencies. This was the case of Hans Speier, who worked first (1942-44) for the Federal Communications Commission in Washington and later (1944-1947) for the Overseas Branch of the Office of War Information.

http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger069.htm

Hans Neisser, 1895-1975

Hans Neisser may today be best remembered by modern economists for his 1932 critique of the Walras-Cassel model which helped prompt the Vienna Colloquium into action. However, Neisser’s other contributions to monetary theory (esp. what he called “circuit velocity”, e.g. 1928, 1931, 1933), structural growth and cycle theory (e.g. 1936, 1961) and econometrics – and philosophy (e.g. 1971) – bear out Schumpeter’s description of him as “one of the most brilliant economic minds” of his generation.

However, Neisser’s early achievements were shadowed by the tumult into which his career was thrown. As a German Jew, social democrat and researcher at the Kiel Institute, Neisser was among the first to be expelled during the Nazi ascendancy – in spite of the extraordinary efforts made by the Kiel directors to retain him. He subsequently moved to the United States in 1933, where he became the first Jew to receive a position at the University of Pennsylvania. However, seven years later, he was still untenured because “he couldn’t get along with anyone”. He gravitated to the New School for Social Research, where he joined his old Kiel colleagues, Adolph Lowe, Gerhard Colm and Jacob Marschak, where he remained for the rest of his career.

Major works of Hans Neisser * “Zur Theorie des wirtschaftlichen Gleichgewichts”, 1927, Kölner sozialpolitische Vierteljahresschrift / Der Tauschwert des Geldes, 1928. / “Lohnsenkung als Heilmittel gegen Arbeitslosigkeit?”, 1930, Magazin der Wirtschaft. / “Des Kreislauf des Geldes”, 1931, WWA / “Kredit und Konjuktur nach J.M. Keynes”, 1931, WWA / “Lohnhöle und Beschäftigungsgrad im Marktgleichgewicht”, 1932, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv. / ” Umlaufsgeschwindigkeit der Bankdepositen”, 1933, Handworterbuch des Bankwesens / “Offentliche Kapitalagen in ihrer Wirkung auf Beschaftigungsgrad”, 1933, Economic Essays in honor of Gustav Cassel / “General Overproduction”, 1934, JPE. / “Commentary on Keynes”, 1936, Social Research / Some International Aspects of the Business Cycle, 1936. / “Investment Fluctuations as Causes of the Business Cycle”, 1937, Social Research / “Permanent Technological Unemployment: Demand for commodities is not demand for labor”, 1942, AER / “Government Net Contribution and Foreign Balance as Offset to Savings”, 1944, RES. / “The Significance of Foreign Trade for Domestic Employment”, 1946, Social Research. / “Keynes as an Economist”, 1946, Social Research / National incomes and international trade: a quantitative analysis with F. Modigliani, 1953. / “Balanced Growth under Constant Returns to Scale: Some comments”, 1954, Econometrica / “Critical Notes on the Acceleration Principle”, 1954, QJE / “Depreciation, Replacement and Regular Growth”, 1955, EJ / “Cyclical Fluctations and Economic Growth”, 1961, Oxford EP / On the Sociology of Knowledge: an essay, 1965. / “Competitive Equilibrium: Existence and approach”, 1968, JPE. / “Are Space and Time Real?”, 1971, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.

Resources on Hans Neisser * HET Pages: The Walras-Cassel-Wald System, Structural Growth Theory http://homepage.newschool.edu/het//profiles/neisser.htm

HANS PHILIPP NEISSER PAPERS, 1918-1971

Born into a distinguished professional family, Hans Neisser achieved a considerable reputation during the German phase of his career–first as economic advisor to the Weimar Government, then as coeditor of one of the leading German business magazines, and after 1927 as Deputy Director of Research in the Institute of world Economics at Kiel University. It was there that he published his first major work, Der Tauschwert des Geldes, one of the very few books written outside of the Anglo-American orbit that Keynes quoted with full approval in his Treatise on Money. From the same period dates his generally acknowledged critique of the fundamentals of the Walrasian system.

Neisser’s first academic appointment in this country was as Professor of Monetary Theory in the University of Pennsylvania, followed during the war by a responsible position in the Office of Price Administration. In 1943 he joined the Graduate Faculty of the New School, where lie served in a leadership capacity, including tenure as Chairman of the Department of Economics, until his retirement in 1965.

Neisser’s teaching and research covered almost the entire scope of economics. Centering on economic theory, his contributions extended to international economics, the history of economic thought, and many fields of applied economics, where he drew on his wide practical experience. Neisser early acknowledged econometrics as an effective tool of empirical research. In collaboration with Franco Modigliani he published in 1953 National Income and International Trade, to date the most comprehensive econometric investigation of: The world-economic relations during the interwar period. Also pioneering was his essay on “The Pricing of Consumer Durables,” which appeared in 1959 in Econometrica. Under Neisser’s guidance the New School became the first teaching institution in the metropolitan area to establish a training center for econometric study. His work ranges from studies on the New Economics to essays on Marx; from an examination of general overproduction to a critical analysis of the theory of games.

35 Interview with John Marshall and D. H. Stevens September 19, 1941, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 54, Folder 633. 36 Undated handwritten note, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 54, Folder 634. 37 Interview John Marshall, Claude Levi-Strauss, May 17, 1945, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 53, Folder 630. 38 Commemoration brochure, November 16, 1949, Archives of the New School for Social Research.

A third aspect of RF collaboration with the New School took the form of support for research projects carried out under the auspices of the Institute of World Affairs (IWA). 16

Suggestions concerning the founding of the IWA were formulated as early as 1941,39 with the intention that it should be the research branch of the Graduate Faculty and would incorporate several projects already financed by the Rockefeller Foundation. In addition to the refugee scholars at the Graduate Faculty, the Institute would include American scholars, who would constitute half the work force. Research would be interdisciplinary; the IWA would thus constitute a platform for cooperation and integration between researchers of different nationalities and scientific disciplines. By associating students as research assistants, the Institute would also become an important aspect of their training. An official proposal formulated by Adolph Lowe, insisted on the importance of the future in the “mastering of world affairs”. He argued that: “Our country’s future welfare will depend on our knowledge and interpretation of the facts about foreign nations.”40

39 Interview Thomas B. Kittredge avec Max Ascoli, February 4, 1941, memorandum on the reorganisation of the New School, Max Ascoli, March 10, 1941, both in RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 383, Folder 4526. 40 Proposal for an Institute of World Affairs, Adolphe Lowe, June 23, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 382, Folder 4516. 41 Inaugural pamphlet, November 17th, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 383, Folder 4521. 42 AJ to JHW, June 8, 1943, RG 1.1, Series 200, Box 53, Folder 628.

The inaugural meeting of the IWA took place on November 17, 1943.41 Administrative costs for the first five years were to be covered by a donation from Doris Duke Cromwell.42 Although an RF subsidy for the institution as a whole had not been forthcoming, several individual projects were financed. The first of these was a project coordinated by Hans Neisser on “The International Aspects of a Policy of Full Employment”, which received a $7,500 grant-in-aid. Among the many other projects receiving RF subsidy and developed under the auspices of the IWA are: the study of “Totalitarian Communication in Wartime” directed by Hans Speier and Ernst Kris (as from 1941), “Religion in Germany Today” directed by Carl Mayer (as from 1953) and a large number of “War and Peace Studies” (involving a number of researchers, among them Max Ascoli, Arthur Feiler, Jakob Marschak, Hans Speier, Hans Staudinger, Frieda Wunderlich, begun in 1940 and continued under the 17

IWA). Public reaction to the research was variable; letters can be found in the files which throw doubt on the objectivity of the European (mainly German) scholars and question the effect of their possible political and religious alliances.43 Government agencies did not react in the same manner and certain scholars were offered employment in government agencies. This was the case of Hans Speier, who worked first (1942-44) for the Federal Communications Commission in Washington and later (1944-1947) for the Overseas Branch of the Office of War Information. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger069.htm

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190.) Nettl, Paul (1938-1944) Princeton / Musicology

Paul Nettl (1889-1972) (1889–1972) “25 juil 2004 … notice biographique de Paul Nettl (1889-1972) musicologue autrichien émigré aus États Unis.” http://www.musicologie.org/Biographies/n/nettl_paul.html

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191.) Neugebauer, Otto (1933-1934, 1938-1944) Brown / Mathematics

Otto Eduard Neugebauer (18991990) was an AustrianAmerican mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages. By studying clay tablets he discovered that the ancient Babylonians knew much more about mathematics and astronomy than had been previously realized. The National Academy of Sciences has called Neugebauer “the most original and productive scholar of the history of the exact sciences, perhaps of the history of science, of our age.”

Neugebauer began as a mathematician, turned first to Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, and then took up the history of mathematical astronomy. In a career of sixty-five years, he largely created our current understanding of mathematical astronomy from Babylon and Egypt, through Greco-Roman antiquity, to India, Islam, and Europe of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. His influence on the study of the history of the exact sciences is profound.

Neugebauer was born in Innsbruck, Austria, his father Rudolph Neugebauer a railroad construction engineer and a collector and scholar of Oriental carpets. His parents died when he was quite young. During World War I Neugebauer enlisted in the Austrian Army and served as an artillery lieutenant on the Italian front, and then in an Italian prisoner-of-war camp alongside fellow-countryman Ludwig Wittgenstein. In 1919 he entered the University of Graz in electrical engineering and physics, and in 1921 transferred to the University of Munich. From 1922 to 1924 he studied mathematics at the Mathematisches Institut at the University of Göttingen under Richard Courant, Edmund Landau, and Emmy Noether. During 1924-25 he was at the University of Copenhagen where his intestests changed to the history of Egyptian mathematics. His thesis Die Grundlagen der ägyptischen Bruchrechnung (Springer, 1926) was a mathematical analysis of the table in the Rhind Papyrus. In 1927 he received his venia legendi for the history of mathematics and served as Privatdozent. His first paper on Babylonian mathematics, in 1927, was an account of the origin of the sexagesimal system.

In 1929 Neugebauer founded Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik (QS), a Springer series devoted to the history of the mathematical sciences, in which he published extended papers on Egyptian computational techniques in arithmetic and geometry, including the Moscow Papyrus, the most important text for geometry. Neugebauer had worked on the Moscow Papyrus in Leningrad in 1928.

In 1931 he founded the review journal Zentralblatt für Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete (Zbl), his most important contribution to modern mathematics. When Hitler became chancellor in 1933, Neugebauer was asked to sign an oath of loyalty to the new government, but he refused and was promptly suspended from employment. In 1934, he joined the University of Copenhagen as full professor of mathematics. In 1936 he published a paper on the method of dating and analyzing texts using diophantine equations. During 1935-37 he published a corpus of texts named Mathematische Keilschrift-Texte (MKT). MKT was a colossal work, in size, in detail, in depth, and its contents show that the riches of Babylonian mathematics far surpass anything one could imagine from a knowledge of Egyptian and Greek mathematics.

In 1939, after the Zentralblatt was taken over by the Nazis, he moved to the United States, joined the mathematics department at Brown University, and founded Mathematical Reviews. He became an American citizen, and remained at Brown for most of his career, founding the History of Mathematics Department there in 1947, and becoming University Professor. Jointly with the American Assyriologist Abraham Sachs, he published Mathematical Cuneiform Texts in 1945, and this has remained a standard English-language work on Babylonian mathematics. In 1967 he was awarded the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship by the American Astronomical Society. In 1977, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1979, he received the Award for Distinguished Service to Mathematics from the Mathematical Association of America. In 1984 he moved to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where he had been a member since 1950.

Neugebauer was also interested in chronology. He was able to reconstruct the Alexandrian Christian calendar and its origin from the Alexandrian Jewish calendar as of about the 4th century, at least 200 years prior to any other source for either calendar. Thus, the Jewish calendar was derived by combining the 19-year cycle using the Alexandrian year with the seven-day week, and was then slightly modified by the Christians to prevent Easter from ever coinciding with Passover. The ecclesiastical calendar, considered by church historians to be highly scientific and deeply complex, turned out to be quite simple. In 1988, by studying a scrap of Greek papyrus, Neugebauer discovered the most important single piece of evidence to date for the extensive transmission of Babylonian astronomy to the Greeks and for the continuing use of Babylonian methods for 400 years even after Ptolemy wrote the Almagest. His last paper, “From Assyriology to Renaissance Art,” published in 1989, detailed the history of a single astronomical parameter, the mean length of the synodic month, from cuneiform tablets, to the papyrus fragment just mentioned, to the Jewish calendar, to an early 15th-century book of hours.

In 1986 Neugebauer was awarded the Balzan Prize “for his fundamental research into the exact sciences in the ancient world, in particular, on ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Greek astronomy, which has put our understanding of ancient science on a new footing and illuminated its transmission to the classical and medieval worlds. For his outstanding success in promoting interest and further research in the history of science” (Motivation of the Balzan General Prize Committee). Neugebauer donated the prize money of 250,000 Swiss francs to the Institute for Advanced Study. / The noted physicist and astronomer Gerry Neugebauer at Caltech is his son. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_E._Neugebauer

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192.) Neumann, Franz Leopold (1933-1944) Office of Strategic Services / Economics

Regarding the work done by various members of the Frankfurt School’s Institute for Social Research for the OSS, I would like to mention the following: first of all, Mr. Stahlman, “the lying-through-its-teeth but crucial 1948 book ‘The Authoritarian Personality’ by Horkheimer and Adorno” was not written in 1948, but 1950. It was not written by Horkheimer and Adorno, but by Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswick, Daniel J. Levinson and R. Nevitt Sanford. Next time you might want to at least get some of the info straight before advising someone to “head on back to the library”.

As for the Frankfurters in the OSS, I suggest you yourself trot back and refresh your memory as to the facts of the case. Those who helped in the OSS fighting fascism were Herbert Marcuse, Franz Neumann, Otto Kirchheimer, Arkady Gurland, Leo Lowenthal and Friedrich Pollack. Horkheimer and Adorno were not involved in OSS, and none of these gentlemen went on to CIA.

Franz Neumann—Deputy Chief of the Central European Section of OSS; consultant at Board of Economic Warfare (Wiggershaus,1994:301).

Otto Kirchheimer/Arkady Gurland—Staff Member at OSS in 1943 (Ibid.)

Lowenthal—Consultant at Office of War Information in 1943 (Ibid.)

Friedrich Pollack—Consultant at Dept. of Justice in the Anti-trust Division in 1943.

Marcuse had a more colorful career. See Barry Katz’s HERBERT MARCUSE AND THE ART OF LIBERATION (1982). In autumn of 1942, Marcuse’s article for the Institute of Social Research, “Elimination of German Chauvinism” put Marcuse in touch with OSS. During Nov. and Dec. of 1942, Marcuse takes a position at Bureau of Intelligence of the Office of War Information. In 1943 he joined the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS. “During this two-year period Marcuse’s group worked on the analysis of political tendencies in Germany, and he was specifically assigned to the identification of Nazi and anti-Nazi groups and individuals; the former were to be held accountable in the war crimes adjudication then being negotiated between the four Great Powers, and the latter were to be called upon for cooperation in post-war reconstruction. For his source materials he drew upon official and military intelligence reports, extensive OSS interviews with refugees, and special OSS agents and contacts in occupied Europe; it was his duty to evaluate the reliability of each of the items of intelligence that reached him, and assemble them all into a coherent analysis op points os strength and weakness in the Reich.”(Katz,1980:116). At the end of 1944, Marcuse, Neumann and Kirchheimer were involved in preparing a Denazification Guide. In 1945 Marcuse was coordinating the investigations of Nazis. In Oct. 1945, Marcuse transferred to the State Dept. and continued work on the Denazification program. When the anti-fascist struggle became an anti-communist struggle and purge, Marcuse’s group in the State Dept. was dismantled. By the middle of 1947, only native-born Americans were allowed to head research divisions. A dissenting voice in the State dept. from 1948 to 1949, Marcuse finally left the government. Absolutely nothing in any of the information I have seen can support your statement, Mr. Stahlman, that “This is very much the point of the collaboration of the Frankfurt School with the OSS and CIA on these same projects to promote irrationality.” 5. There is indeed a connection between the Nazi program of Rauschgiftbekaempfung (Fight against Drugs) and the War on Drugs in the U.S. I draw my methodology from Hermann Fahrenkrug’s instructive essay, “Alcohol and the State in Nazi Germany 1933-1945” [in DRINKING: Behavior and Belief in Modern History, ed. S.Barrows & R.Room, Berkeley: U.C.Press, 1991,pp.315-334. “On the level of individual action, part of the modernization process and one of the input requirements of modern social systems, according to Weber, was to induce members of a society to adjust to the systemic imperative of conducting as self-controllable and rational a life-style as possible. This adjustment would be realized through disciplined professional work and through the process of social reproduction (in other words, through the family and child rearing). It seems evident that under crisis conditions modern system requirements can only be guaranteed through authoritarian or fascist means. The nucleus of the so-called alcohol question at that time consisted in the collision of traditional drinking habits with the above-mentioned system imperatives of modern society. This collision began already with the onset of modernization in German society in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The twelve-year interlude of the Third Reich offers the chance to study the conflict (and the radical attempts at its solution) between alcohol abuse and the requirements of modern times under socially extreme conditions (economic crises, accelerated modernizatin, totalitarian state, and war).” Fahrenkrug has based his study of the Nazi anti-alcohol (and anti-drug) campaigns on Habermas and critical theory, in particular the theory of modernization. This theory can also be seen at work in Wolfgang Schivelbush’s TASTES OF PARADISE: A Social History of Spices, Stimulants and Intoxicants(NY: Vintage, 1992). He opens his essay with a choice quote: “Germany needs the strength of every single man for the development of its national and economic freedom. Therefore, no German has the right to impair his strength through alcohol abuse. Such action is detrimental not only to himself, but to his family, and above all, to his people. —Heinrich Himmler, 1938. Compare that quote with another from an American congressperson: “I suppose I’m looking at this as a parent but I cannot imagine a parent in America who wants their child to experiment with heroin, LSD–Charles Manson’s favorite snack food—crack, or any such thing. To say that it is a victimless crime is really incorrect. It tears at the fabric of families, it tears at the whole society fabric, and I really think that we have to be very very serious about this, and to have the Federal Government come in and say ‘rather than allow these poisons to be outlawed, we’re going to allow these poisons to be in 7-11’s’ that’s putting a stamp on them, and we don’t want to put a stamp on it, …but we all have to work together as a society to tackle this or I think we’re going to be in great, great trouble when we come to the 21st Century and try to compete….” –Rep. Pat Schroeder (March 26,1990) Ms. Schroeder’s remarks were part of a Firing-line Debate which featured a motley crew of unlikely confederates. She was joined by Newt Gingrich, Charles Rangel and ex-Customs Commissioner William von Raab in opposing the legalization of drugs. William F. Buckley, ACLU’s Ira Glasser, Fed. Judge Robert Sweet, and business tycoon Richard Dennis were arguing for the resolution. Throughout this debate, which was aired at the same time as an academy awards ceremony and thus effectively neutralized, Ms. Schroeder harped at America’s need to compete financially, and how much “drugs” hindered our ability to do so. It is not my contention that the program of Nazi Health Ministry is THE source of America’s War on Drugs. I have called it a precursor. Both programs deserve to be scrutinized in detail. They do exhibit glaring similarities. But America’s earliest wars on drugs began two decades before the Nazi program. Until the Versailles Treaty foisted it upon them, the German government resisted the efforts at international narcotics control. Both the United States and Germany have been prey to racist stereotypes in their anti-narcotics propaganda. A great deal of prohibitionist sentiment in the U.S. after the First World War was directed at immigrants, particularly German immigrants. Anti-opium legislation targeted the Chinese. Anti-cocaine and anti-marijuana legislation has targeted Afican-Americans and Mexican-Americans. To the Nazis, “Volksgift” (people’s poison) came into the good Aryan community from inferior peoples in Asia and South America. Stringaris’s book HASCHISCHSUCHT (Hashish Addiction) [1938] abounds with such doctored racist “data”. The Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate had posted a large bibliography on German Psychopharmacological Research before 1945. It is divided into research conducted during the Wilhelmine Era and the Weimar Republic, and research conducted during the Third Reich. The titles of the monographs reveal a great deal about the nature of the research and the tendencies of such research during particular historical periods. In translating and studying Benjamin’s work on “rausch,” I stumbled upon this subject of “Rauschgiftbekaempfung,” a subject which Fahrenkrug has called “an extensive terra incognita” of research. We have found others in Germany who have joined us in our research, who have confirmed that we aren’t dreaming all this up, that there really is something to look at here. We invite others to take a look for themselves. More later, Scott Thompson http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-9706/msg00061.html

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193.) Neumann, Sigmund (1933-1944) Wesleyan (Middleton, Ct.) / Sociology

 Sigmund Neumann, Presiding Over a Seminar at Wesleyan University c. 1958.

Neumann Played a Prominent Role at that Time in the SSRC Committee on Comparative Politics…][pic and muchos info, which see:] http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/APSRNov06Loewenberg.pdf

Council on Foreign Relations Membership List “… CFR Win J. Neuger CFR Stephanie G. Neuman CFR Norman Neureiter CFR Sigmund Neumann CFR Richard E. Neustadt CFR Esther R. Newberg CFR Andre W. G. Newburg …” http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/cfrall3.htm presentation of practical issues in which the Left Socialist … “systematic comparative approach than he will in fact find. With the exception of two interesting comparative essays (by the late Sigmund Neumann and by …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-5859(196704)18%3A4%3C526%3ADIACS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L Permanent revolution : totalitarianism in the age of international … “Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Neumann, Sigmund, 1904-; Format: Book; xxii, 402 p. ; 21 cm.” nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn771700 The Influence of European Émigré Scholars on Comparative Politics … “Neumann 1942; Sigmund Neumann 1942; William Ebenstein 1939, …. Sigmund Neumann , Presiding Over a Seminar at Wesleyan University c. 1958. …” journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=560828 Challenge Gift from Harry C. Barr ’56 Will Benefit The Wesleyan … “Another professor who had a significant impact on his career path was Sigmund Neumann, who taught government and social sciences and served as Harry’s …” http://www.wesleyan.edu/alumni/gifts/2006/barr.html The Germanization of Lenin “the United States such as Sigmund Neumann and Karl J. Friedrich,. American liberal historiography approached Lenin as an expression of. Caesarism. …” http://www.springerlink.com/index/X45217V705715V7N.pdf Totalitarianism – The Coherence Of Totalitarianism “Similarly, Sigmund Neumann entitled his comparative study of the Nazi, Fascist, and Bolshevist hurricanes Permanent Revolution: The Total State in a World …” science.jrank.org/pages/11472/Totalitarianism-Coherence-Totalitarianism.html

The centrality of flux and activism to the idea of totalitarianism is integral to classical academic accounts of the phenomenon. It prompted Franz Neumann, in Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism (1942), to call the Third Reich a “movement state,” and Ernst Fraenkel to describe it as a “dual state” in which the “normal” functions of the legal and administrative apparatus were constantly undermined by Party “prerogative”—Fraenkel’s term for the maelstrom of feverish Nazi initiatives that unleashed bedlam without respite. Similarly, Sigmund Neumann entitled his comparative study of the Nazi, Fascist, and Bolshevist hurricanes Permanent Revolution: The Total State in a World at War (1942).

Horizon Information Portal “Permanent revolution; the total state in a world at war, by Sigmund Neumann. by Neumann, Sigmund, b. 1904. Add to my list. Publisher: …” hzportal.dayton.lib.oh.us/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=1K4L4H1715859.5048&profile=def&uri=link=3100007~!1172094~!3100001~!3100002&aspect=subtab13&menu=search&ri=1&source=~!horizon&term=Neumann%2C+Sigmund%2C+b.+1904&index=PAUTHOR * “Sigmund Neumann Institute for the Research of Liberty and Democracy, Dresden. Prof. Marco FRENSCHKOWSKI University of Mainz. Hungary. Anton PELINKA …” * “… in the post-war infusion of the work of European scholars such as Strauss, Arendt, Hans Morgenthau, Waldemar Gurian, Franz Neumann, Sigmund Neumann, …” www.palgrave-journals.com/eps/journal/v5/n2/full/2210073a.html

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194.) Neuner, Robert (1938-1943) Federal Communications Commission (D.C.) / Law

STATE OF NEW YORK STATE TAX COMMISSION In the Matter of the “to petitioners, Robert Neuner and Claire A. Neuner, together with a Statement of … During the years in issue, petitioner Robert Neuner was a partner at …” http://www.nysdta.org/STC/54139.pdf

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195.) Noether, Emmy (1933-1936, 1939-1940) Bryn Mawr / Mathematics

JOINING THE FACULTY CLUB: “Eva Lehmann Fiesel, a recognized authority on Etruscan philology who was raised as a Protestant, was hired to teach at the University of Munich on a …” http://www.brandeis.edu/hbi/pubs/Harriet%20Freidenreich%20Paper.doc

For example, Emmy Noether, widely recognized as one of the foremost mathematicians of the twentieth century, never achieved the rank of tenured full professor at the University of Göttingen, but remained an assistant professor until her emigration to the United States in 1933. Noether had received her doctorate in Erlangen in 1907. Until the war she worked without compensation at the Mathematical Institute of her alma mater, doing research and occasionally substituting for her father, mathematics professor Max Noether, in his lectures. During the war, she became a research and teaching assistant for her Doktorvater (or advisor) David Hilbert in Göttingen but remained ineligible for an official appointment as Privatdozentin, despite her mentor’s intercessions on her behalf. Hilbert supposedly exclaimed at a faculty meeting, “I do not see that the sex of the candidate is an argument against her admission as Privatdozent. After all, we are a university, not a bathing establishment.” Nevertheless, Noether, after teaching and publishing for more than a decade, only received her venia legendi, or right to teach, in 1919, when she was allowed to submit and defend her Habilitationsschrift. In 1922, she gained the designation of unbeamteter ausserordentlicher Professor, or unofficial assistant professor, an empty title without the accompanying responsibilities and salary. Finally, she managed to get a teaching contract in algebra, which provided her with a small but regular stipend for her teaching.************************************************************

Emmy Noether was a brilliant mathematician who nurtured and inspired many protégés, including several women. Her qualifications for a professorship were indisputable given her international reputation and the caliber of the many students she trained. Like many other Jewish women, she was prevented from receiving a permanent appointment and a promotion for several reasons: because she was a Jew, because she was a socialist, but, most of all, because she was a woman.

196.) Nordheim, Lothar Wolfgang (1933-1941, 1944) Duke / Physics

Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Doctor of Science, Purdue University 1963 (1899, München1985, La Jolla, California, USA) was a German-born Jewish theoretical physicist. He taught at Duke University. His name is sometimes misspelled as Lother.

An important contribution, with the British physicist Fowler in 1928, was to establish the correct physical explanation of the physical phenomenon now called field electron emission (FE). They established that electron emission occurred by a form of wave-mechanical tunneling now called Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling), and – with the help of the assumption that electrons in metals obeyed Fermi-Dirac statistics – derived an (approximate) emission equation. Over time, this equation has been developed into a family of approximate equations (offering different degrees of approximation to reality, when describing FE from bulk metals), known as Fowler-Nordheim-type equations.

FN tunneling was the first effect in physics to be firmly identified as due to wave-mechanical tunneling, in the early days of quantum mechanics. The original FN-type equation was one of the first to use Fermi-Dirac statistics to explain an experimental phenomenon involving electrons in metals, and its success greatly helped to establish modern electron band theory.

FE has had many significant practical applications (see main article on FE.). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lothar_Wolfgang_Nordheim

–Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim was born in Munich, Germany in 1899. In l923 he received his Ph. D. degree in Physics from the University of Göttingen. In the years immediately following he took part in the efforts to apply the still inadeqnate theory of the day to the understanding of atomic structure and behavior. As the tools of modern quantum theory became available, he applied them to the study of solids, and made a long series of distinguished contributions to the early development of solid state physics. Among his famous papers are those on the work function of metals, thermionic emission from metals, the resistivity of metals and alloys, and the rectifying action of semiconductorto-metal contacts.

His distinguished contributions to this field led him to be invited to make a book length contribution to the famous Muller Pouillets Handbook of Physice, where he wrote on the statistical and kinetic theory of the metallic state, and on the quantum theory of magnetism. During this period he lectured at Göttingen, and was the holder of a Rockefeller Foundation Research Fellowship, a Lorentz Fellowship, and was a Visiting Professor at the University of Moscow.

After the rise of Hitler he came to Purdue University as Visiting Professor, under the sponsorship of the Emergency Committee for Displaced German Scholars. At Purdue he directed the Ph. D. research of graduate students in the field of solid state physics, while he began to turn his own attention to the study of cosmic rays. During the following years he participated in the analyses of cosmic ray phenomena that finally led to the modern understanding of the role of mesons in cosmic ray showers. In this work he collaborated with his wife, Gertrud Pöschl, who also worked actively on the theory of the structure of polyatomic molecules and their spectra.

In 1937 Dr. Nordheim accepted a Professorship at Duke University. When the Manhattan project was set up he was called upon to accept Important responsibilities at the Oak Ridge facility. He served as section chief in the “Clinton Laboratories”, the forerunner of the present Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and from 1945 to 1947 he was Director of the Physics Division of that laboratory. In 1947 he returned to Duke, while continuing to serve as consultant at Oak Ridge and the Los Alamos laboratory. During this period he contributed to the theory of cosmic ray showers, and was one of the earliest contributors to the development of the shell theory of nuclear structure. In 1956 he accepted a research position at the John J. Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, of General Atomics, in San Diego, wbere he became Chairman of the Theoretical Physics Department, and coutinued research in the fields which he entered In the early days at Oak Ridge, reactor and neutron physics.Purdue is Indebted to Dr. Nordheim for the impetus he gave to the development of theoretical research in physics on this campus, and for the early training of several of its later professors. He established contacts, which, during the ensuing years, brought many distinguished visitors to this campus. http://www.physics.purdue.edu/alumni/hondegree/nordheim.shtml

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197.) Nussbaum, Arthur (1933-1946) Columbia / Law

Arthur Nussbaum (18771964) (sometimes Artur) was a German-born American jurist.

He taught at Berlin University (1918-1933).

In 1934 he moved to the United States, and in 1940, he became a US citizen.

He taught at Columbia Law School from 1934 until his formal retirement in 1951, and was honored in Columbia Law Review’s 57th Volume with ‘Arthur Nussbaum: A Tribute.’

Scholarly Publications * Deutsches internationales Privatrecht, 1932 / Money in the law, 1939 / Principles of private international law, 1942 / Concise history of the law of nations, 1947

Arthur Nussbaum 1877-1964 * “ARTHUR NUSSBAUM THE PIONEER OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION Dr. Arthur Nussbaum first showed his interest in the development of commercial …” in 1912. links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-1958(195701)57%3A1%3C8%3AANTPOI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E* A TRIBUTE We are happy in the knowledge that Dr. Arthur Nussbaum, Research Professor of …”
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-1958(195701)57%3A1%3C1%3AANAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W * ‘research professor of public law at Columbia’…80th b’day, 25 years on staff…so 55 when he arrived there…in 1934…”already had world-wide reputation…rightly regarded as one of the most distinguished ‘german’ refugee scholars…” * “A History of the Dollar Book by Arthur Nussbaum; 1957 * “twenty-five years ago Professor Arthur Nussbaum spoke of the ” Tantalus interpretation ” to which gold clauses had been …” journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=1476344

THE ARBITRATION BETWEEN THE LENA GOLDFIELDS, LTD. AND THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT Arthur Nussbaum*

The arbitration proceedings conducted in 1930 by Lena Goldfields, Ltd., London, against the Soviet Government constitute one of the most remarkable occurrences in the field of arbitration. It is the only arbitration, in fact the only international law case, in which the Soviet Government was a party.1 Of still greater significance are the actions taken in the case by the Soviet Government and the problems to which they gave rise. The implications extend beyond the legal area and impart to the case a lasting interest. It has been repeatedly referred to in recent publications,2 but it has not yet been discussed in detail, probably because the material is not readily available. In the following an attempt has been made to fill the gap. / The text of the comprehensive award was published in The Times etc. http://www.trans-lex.org/127500

…of Czechoslovakia in World War II, memories of the case were revived by the … Arthur Nussbaum, “The ‘Ritual Murder’ Trial of Polna,” Historia Judaica, …”

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198.) Olschki, Leonardo (1933-1934, 1938-1944) U of Oregon / Philology

Machiavelli: Cynic, Patriot, or Political Scientist? “Leonardo Olschki was born in Verona, Italy, in 1885. His higher education was completed at Heidelberg, where he received his Ph.D. in 1908. …” http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34624286 Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries “That fine scholar, Leonardo Olschki, takes another point of view: “Commercial … ( Leonardo Olschki, Marco Polo’s precursors [ Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins …” http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&docId=43171773 “Marco Polo: Critical Essay by Leonardo Olschki summary with 29 pages of encyclopedia entries, research information, and more.” http://www.bookrags.com/criticism/marco-polo-1254-1324_15/ THE MYTH OF FELT by Leonardo Olschki from JD Holmes, ABAA – ILAB … “Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949. FIRST EDITION.. VERY GOOD+ in dust jacket. Small 8vo. … – THE MYTH OF FELT – Leonardo Olschki – Used …” http://www.abaa.org/books/249260351.html History of the collections “Warburg acquired this collection of about 350 titles during his last stay in Italy through the intermediary of the book dealer and scholar Leonardo Olschki. …” warburg.sas.ac.uk/mnemosyne/Bruno/collections.html

(“Aby Warburg”) The late nineteenth-century vision of the philosopher presented in scholarship, fiction and monumental sculpture as a champion in the long fight between middle ages and Renaissance, reaction and progress, repression and freedom of thought, is undoubtedly at the root of Warburg’s Brunian interest which harks back to the 1910s. He became acquainted with Bruno through the Spaccio della Bestia, in which the philosopher endeavors to reform the imagery of the pre-modern sky. It is only in 1928-29, however, that this interest began to take the shape of an obsession.

In Warburg’s correspondence the first traces go back to November 1928 when he invites Leonardo Olschki to give a lecture on Bruno. He wants him to talk about the function of classical mythology in Bruno’s thought as he hoped that it might demonstrate a link between pagan image-based thought and modern symbol-based thought. For him Bruno is the pivotal thinker of the 16th century, an ‘antenna’, a receptor of European thought.

Mueller Science – model: analogy analogies language mystics … “Leonardo Olschki (I, pp. 365-413) shows a plentitude of analogies used by da Vinci in order to describe and explain natural objects and phenomena. …” http://www.muellerscience.com/ENGLISH/model_text/IX_analogy.htm

Because analogy allows the combination of phantasy, eruditeness and life, artists and scholars in the Renaissance period have used frequently and virtuoso analogy (Leonardo Olschki 1918-27; Ernst Cassirer, 1927). Michael Randall (1996) analyzed the „analogical imagery” of the French Renaissance.

The first masterpiece of the modern era for a mathematical work animated by examples, anecdotes, proverbs, citations and sayings is the already mentioned “Summa” of Luca Pacioli (Olschki I, 164ff.). Here science and pedagogy merge with meticulousness and vividness. Pacioli borrowed from Boethius the comparison of perfect and imperfect numbers with an able-bodied man and a cripple. In a series of analogies and allegories he further developed it (I, 169).

We find perfection of visual thinking with Leonardo da Vinci. He was convinced of the equality of art and science as instruments of cognition. Leonardo Olschki (I, pp. 365-413) shows a plentitude of analogies used by da Vinci in order to describe and explain natural objects and phenomena.

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