Displaced Scholars

Oppenheimer – Pribram

199.) Oppenheimer, Oskar (1939-1944) Parsons College (Iowa) / Psychology

ABSTRACT “MAN FOR HIMSELF? OSCAR OPPENHEIMER 1. 1 Professor in the Department of Psychology and Education at Central Michigan College of Education, Mount Pleasant. …” doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1741-5446.1955.tb01137.x Chicago Journals – American Journal of Education “Oskar Oppenheimer. Citation-JSTOR Articlexml … Psychology Made Simple. Thomas M. Carter. Citation-JSTOR Articlexml. 121. Student Writings of Merit …” http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/sr/1946/54/2 Germany’s Reaction Against the Jew “In addition Jews swarmed through the German delegation as experts and advisors— Max Warburg, Dr. Von Strauss, Merton, Oskar Oppenheimer, Dr. Jaffe, Deutsch, …” http://www.jrbooksonline.com/Intl_Jew_full_version/ij02.htm The International Jew “Von Strauss, Merton, Oskar Oppenheimer, Dr. Jaffe, Deutsch, Brentano, Bernstein, Struck, Rathenau, Wassermann, and Mendelsohn-Bartholdi. …” books.google.com/books?id=cNsfsqyxDl8C&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=Oskar+Oppenheimer&source=bl&ots=DMHAX_6o_7&sig=Cf9pCd1owFaE-EGoPF6zz9dlJP8&hl=en OPPENHEIMER Family Tree “Oscar married (10 June 1887 Frankfurt) cousin Frieda OPPENHEIMER (b. …. 24 or 25 July 1905 Frankfurt) married her cousin Oscar Wilhelm OPPENHEIMER. …” http://www.loebtree.com/oppsig.html Oppenheimer Family “January 30, 1941 (Paintsville Herald Newspaper) – A gun with a history of murder and mayhem is in possession of Oscar Oppenheimer of Paintsville. …” http://www.nighthawkenterprises.netfirms.com/oppenhei.htm Summer T’fillah Schedule “Julius Oppenheimer. Oskar Oppenheimer. Louise F Roos. Bertha Rosenberg. Deborah Rothschild. Felix Schwarz. Jacob Schweitzer. Selma Simon. Deborah Slosser …” www.hebrewtabernacle.org/bulletin/2007-06.pdf

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200.) Palyi, Melchior (1933-1941, 1944) Chicago / Economics

FSO Editorials: “The Dollar: An Agonizing Reappraisal, Part 1” by … “The author, monetary scientist Melchior Palyi, a native of Hungary, died before he could finish it. Monetary events started to spin out of control in 1965, …” http://www.financialsense.com/editorials/fekete/2007/0530.html * New York: National Bureau of Economic * HES: Re: QUERY — Melchior Palyi? “Here is what I wrote up: Melchior Palyi was born in Budapest, Hungary on March 14, 1892. When= he died in Chicago on July 28, 1970 he had had three careers: …” eh.net/pipermail/hes/2005-February/002857.html * Guide to the Melchior Palyi Papers 1915-1970 “Melchior Palyi was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1892. He received his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Munich in 1915. From 1918 to 1933 Palyi …” marklogic.lib.uchicago.edu:8002/view.xqy?id=ICU.SPCL.PALYI&c=p Guide to the Melchior Palyi Papers 1915-1970

Melchior Palyi, economist and professor. The papers contain correspondence, manuscripts, book reviews, articles, lectures, off-prints, clippings, biographical material, radio broadcasts, tape recordings, a film, books, copies of the newsletter Bulletin, and pamphlets. Papers document Palyi’s work as a conservative economist.

Biographical Note

Melchior Palyi was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1892. He received his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Munich in 1915. From 1918 to 1933 Palyi taught at the University of Munich, the University of Goettingen and the University of Kiel. In 1927, he first came to the United States as a visiting professor at the University of Chicago. 1928 saw Palyi as an economist at the Deutsche Bank. Until 1931, Palyi was also a Professor of Finance at the Graduate School of Commerce in Berlin. For the next three years he held two posts important in the financial reconstruction of the German economy: he was the principal economic advisor to the Reichsbank and the Managing Director of the Institute for Currency Research, Berlin.

By 1933, Palyi had immigrated to the United States. He became a visiting professor and research economist at the University of Chicago and the University of Wisconsin. During the years 1943-1944, Palyi gave a series of radio talks on WIND, dealing with economic and social problems caused by the war in Europe. In 1945, he became a war correspondent and wrote articles for the Chicago Tribune and the Jackson Citizen Patriot newspapers. After the war, Palyi returned to Chicago and continued teaching and lecturing.

The 1950s saw Palyi producing such works as Compulsory Medical Care and the Welfare State (1950), The Dollar Dilemma: Perpetual Aid to Europe, and Managed Money at the Crossroads (1958). Palyi, as seen through his books and articles, represented the “conservative” faction of American economists during the middle of the 20th century.

In 1960, Melchior Palyi became a visiting professor and research economist at Northwestern University. From 1961 to 1968 Palyi wrote a weekly column for the Chicago Tribune entitled, “Comment,” which dealt with various economic problems in the United States and the world as well as local problems. Also in 1961, Palyi produced a small but foresighted book that he entitled An Inflation Primer. This book attempted to get at the various causes for spiraling inflation and the accompanying recessionary periods. From 1962 to 1970, Palyi also wrote a regular column for the Chicago Commercial and Financial Chronicle which was entitled “Point of View.”

Melchior Palyi, after 78 years of studying, advising, and teaching about world economics, died on July 29, 1970. In 1971 one of his greatest works was published posthumously. The Twilight of Gold dealt with a subject that fascinated Palyi all of his life: the gold standard. In this book he talks about the classical gold standard, the post-World War I monetary climate and its relationship to gold stabilization (which includes an interesting section entitled “Social Justice vs. Gold”) and the New Gold Standard. “Prelude to Catastrophe” is a section which discusses flaws in the international credit structure and the American debt behemoth and the speculative euphoria. “Destabilization (1931-1936)” deals with the demise of the “Gold Bloc.” The final section of the text proper deals with the demise of the gold standard. Additionally, there is a postscript entitled “Does History Repeat Itself?”

Scope Note

The Melchior Palyi papers have been arranged into five series. Series I includes biographical materials, awards, and honorary degrees. Series II contains correspondence arranged chronologically, including personal letters to Palyi and some copies of letters from him to other people. The majority of correspondence dates from 1931 to 1933. Series III contains writing by Palyi and others, including book reviews, articles, lectures and notes, as well as the WIND radio talks dealing with the war in Europe. Series IV contains The Bulletin, a privately circulated newsletter on economic and social issues. Series V includes newspaper clippings about Palyi, his minor books, and off-print copies of his articles.

Writings, 1947-1948, undated * “The Prospect of Interest Rates and of the Bond Market” / “Preamble” / “Appeasements, Old and New” / “Memorandum from Dr. Melchior Palyi” / “July, 1947 – Comments” / “The Steel Bottleneck” / “Some Aspects of Military Conscription” / “Some Reflections on Inflation” / “Glancing at 1948: An Economic Letter” / “October 1, 1948” / “Europe’s Frustration by Capital Flight” / “Potential Exports from Germany” / “How Long Will the War Last?” / “Outsmarting Inflation” / “Post-War Boom” / “Inflation by Escalator” / “Europe’s Penal Colony” / “What Happened to National Debts” / Box: 3 Folder: 7 Writings, 1944-1945, 1952, undated / “Anglo-American Competition” / “The Sino-Russian `Deal'” / “Hard Bargain, Harry Hopkins Style” / “The New International Charter” / “The Soviets ‘Reform’ Central Europe” / “The Soviets Back to Normal” / “What Makes the Stock Market Tick?” / “Japanese Peace Prospect” / “What of the European Balance of Power?” / “Rubles Rolling Over Central Europe” / “Post-War Cost Inflation” / “What’s Wrong With Italy?” / “Soviet Bureaucratism vs. Nazi Feudalism” / “To Be Or Not To Be – The Scapegoat” / “Fresh Air in Washington” / “Deflation in Belgium” / “Back to Isolation?” / “Freedom from Worry vs. Freedom from Fear” / “Persian Oil and Balance of Power Politics” / “American Elections and Post-War International Relations” / “What About Estate Taxes?” / “Freedom of Poland – Moscow Version” / “Putting the (Tax) Cart Before the (Budget) Horse” / “Burial at Dumbarton Oaks” / “The Hard Treatment for Germany” / “Peace Secured By Spending?” / “The Balkan Jig-Saw Puzzle” / “An Epitaph for Hitler” / “From Vienna to Dumbarton Oaks” / “The Simple Ways of International Double-Crossing” / “Spreading the Financial Disease” / “The Six Freedoms of the Bretton Woods Charter” / “The Crisis in Naziland” / “Post-War Depression?” / “Is Stalin Going Conservative?” / “The Economists of Monsieur DeGaulle” / “Year-End Defeats” / “Axis Morale” / “The Soviet Blockade of China” / “Stabilizing the World at Bretton Woods” / “Russia Offers Appeasement” / “Disenchanted Nationalizers” Box: 3 Folder: 8-9 / Miscellaneous and fragmented articles; “Point of View”; lists of Bulletin (includes titles and dates); Monetary Inflation, 1932-1936,1942-1947, 1963-1970, undated

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201.) Paulsen, Wolfgang (1934-1937, 1942-1944) State U of Iowa / Economics

“Similar views, if not in such extreme form, had been advanced the previous year by Wolfgang Paulsen (1962), who links Jaromir rather unconvincingly with …” http://books.google.com/books?id=e-ZfcfbAfuMC&pg=PA63&lpg=PA63&dq=Wolfgang+Paulsen&source=bl&ots=F_ZaJFR4cO&sig=MCQenvWrbHCFIJwAOXUmNAAce-k&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Wolfgang%20Paulsen&f=false SCHOLARSHIP AS USUAL? SCHOLARSHIP AS USUAL? “Wolfgang Paulsen,. Southwestern. Hitler’s Intellectual. Antecedents … Wolfgang Paulsen,. Southwestern. Page Two. Page Two. THE SOUTH-CENTRAL. BULLETIN …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-321X(194204)2%3A3%3C2%3ASAU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R

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 202.) Pekelis, Alexander Haim (1939-1944) Graduate Faculty, New School for, etc. / Language & Literature

Biographical Sketch /

In 1941, his first year in New York City, he was appointed professor of Sociology at the New School for Social Research, and graduated in law from Columbia School of Law. In 1945 he was appointed Chief Consultant to the Commission on Law and Social Action of the America Jewish Congress. On December 28, 1946, he died in an airplane accident near Shannon Airport, in Ireland.

• Works of Pekelis *

Cedam, 1932; • Azione [“Legal Action”], in Nuovo Digesto Italiano, Turin: UTET, 1937; • Law and Social Action – Select Essays of Alexander H. Pekelis, edited by Milton R. Konvitz, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1950.

• Works on Pekelis *

Apart from a number of reviews of his Il diritto and his posthumous Law and Social Action, five critical analyses of Pekelis’ idea of law and legal action exist: • Alessandro Levi, Il diritto (obbiettivo) come volontà costante (dello Stato), in Temi Emiliana, 1931, 41ff.; • Benedetto Croce, Conversazioni Critiche – Serie Quinta, Bari: Laterza, 1939, at 283-286; morePekelis is the author of one book and several essays: • Il diritto come volontà costante [“The Law as a Constant Will”], Padua: Cedam, 1930; • Saggio sui rapporti tra diritto e morale [“Essay on Morality and the Law”], Padua:Alexander Haim Pekelis was born in Odessa in 1902. In 1920 he escaped the Russian Revolution, moving first to Germany (Leipzig), then, in 1921, to Austria (Vienna), and finally, in 1924, to Italy (Florence and Rome, 1924-1938). His graduate thesis (1928) was published two years later under the title ll diritto come volontà costante (“The Law as a Constant Will”). In the early 1930s he was appointed as Libero Docente (professorship, non-tenured) of Philosophy of Law at the University of Rome, where he taught until 1938. In 1938, because of the Fascist Racial Laws, he fled Italy, and in 1941, after three years spent in Paris as an attorney, he came to the United States as a refugee.Cervantes Society of America Newsletter, Feb. 1993 “The motion was seconded by H. Percas and was approved unanimously. …. Francisco J. Sánchez and Nicholas Spadaccini, Frederick A. de Armas, Malcolm K. Read …” http://www.h-net.org/~cervantes/csa/nwsltw93.htm All Resources Search Results “Nicolas PERCAS – US Social Security Death Index Birth: 14 Mar 1889 State Where Number was Issued: Iowa Death: Aug 1965 …” http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Search/ancestorsearchresults.asp?last_name=Percas[obit:] Dr. Nicolas Percas, 73, Dies; Grinnell Language Teacher August 9, 1965, Monday http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70D10FC3A54177A93CBA91783D85F418685F9

Biographical Sketch /

In 1941, his first year in New York City, he was appointed professor of Sociology at the New School for Social Research, and graduated in law from Columbia School of Law. In 1945 he was appointed Chief Consultant to the Commission on Law and Social Action of the America Jewish Congress. On December 28, 1946, he died in an airplane accident near Shannon Airport, in Ireland.

• Works of Pekelis *

• Works on Pekelis *

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203.) Percas, Nicolás (1941-1944) St. Lawrence U (NY) / Languages

Cervantes Society of America Newsletter, Feb. 1993 “The motion was seconded by H. Percas and was approved unanimously. …. Francisco J. Sánchez and Nicholas Spadaccini, Frederick A. de Armas, Malcolm K. Read …” http://www.h-net.org/~cervantes/csa/nwsltw93.htm All Resources Search Results “Nicolas PERCAS – US Social Security Death Index Birth: 14 Mar 1889 State Where Number was Issued: Iowa Death: Aug 1965 …” http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Search/ancestorsearchresults.asp?last_name=Percas

[obit:] Dr. Nicolas Percas, 73, Dies; Grinnell Language Teacher August 9, 1965, Monday http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70D10FC3A54177A93CBA91783D85F418685F9

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204.) Petschek, Georg (1938-1944) Harvard / Law

Georg Petschek was born July 20, 1872 in Koln. In 1890 G. Petschek entered German University in Prague, which he graduated in 1894. In 1896 Petschek defended a MA thesis in Prague and received a public position in Prussia. Then he commenced writing his PhD thesis. In 1902 he defended the PhD thesis entitled “Austrian Civil Court Cases” in Prague and in 1904 he was nominated for the title of noble professor extraordinary. Since 1907 till 1919 Petschek worked on a position of the extraordinary professor at Chernivtsi University. After annexation of Austria to Germany the lawyer from Jewish family moved to the USA where he worked till the end of his life at the Law School in Harvard. G. Petschek died September 5, 1947 in Cambridge (Massachusetts). http://www.criminaldep.chnu.edu.ua/en/history/georg_petschek.html

German-Czech * “jurist, Georg Petschek, who in 1939 came as research associate to the Harvard Law School. In 1911, Schumpeter was called to the University of Graz, the …” http://www.jstor.org/stable/1884555

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205.) Pinthus, Kurt (1939-1944) Lib. of Congress / History of Literature & the Theater

Pinthus, Kurt (Erfurt, 1886-1975, Marbach), Berlin critic, emigrated to the USA in 1933. An authority on the theatre, he held an appointment at Columbia University, New York, from 1947 to 1961. His Menschheitsdämmerung (1920) is a well-known anthology of Expressionistic verse which has been repeatedly reissued, in 1968 by Pinthus himself. http://www.answers.com/topic/kurt-pinthus

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206.) Plöchl, Willibald Maria (1942-1944) Catholic U of America / Law

reg_096.xml Register of the Eric Voegelin Papers, 1907-1997 … “… Willibald Plöchl, Friedrich Engel-Janosi, Austrian National Council, ….. once removed of Eric Voegelin (son of Hede and Karl Koch) 15 König, Marie ep, …” texts.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/data/13030/41/tf4m3nb041/tf4m3nb041.xml * “Law > International; Religion > Islam; Humor; Plöchl, Willibald M. (Willibald Maria); Law and anthropology; Islamic; browse all subjects …” http://www.alibris.com/search/books/author/Potz,%20Richard Connect NY “Plochl Willibald M Willibald Maria : 1969, 1. Plochmann Carolyn Gassan, 3. Plochmann George Kimball 1914, 8. Plochmann Otto : 1922, 1 …” http://www.connectny.info:2083/search~S0/aPLN+(Persero),+PT/apln+persero+pt/-3,-1,0,B/browse

Willibald Maria Plöchl (*

7. Juli 1907 in St. Pölten, Niederösterreich; † 27. Mai 1984 in Wien) war ein österreichischer Jurist und Hochschullehrer.Willibald Maria Plöchl wuchs als Sohn eines

Regierungsrats und Leiters einer Lehrerbildungsanstalt in St. Pölten auf. 1926 legte er die Matura ab. 1927 bis 1929 studierte er an der Konsularakademie in Wien. Schon zu dieser Zeit war Plöchl in der, von Friedrich Funder geleiteten, christlichsozialen Wiener Tageszeitung Reichspost journalistisch tätig. Er absolvierte das Studium der Rechtswissenschaften an der Universität Wien und wurde dort 1931 zum Dr. iur. promoviert. Nach seinem Studienabschluss trat Plöchl in den Verwaltungsdienst der Niederösterreichischen Landesregierung ein, und war unter anderem für die Bekämpfung der seit 1933 verbotenen NSDAP zuständig. Plöchl profilierte sich politisch als Legitimist und war im Regime des Austrofaschismus in verschiedenen Funktionen tätig, etwa ab 1936 als Mitglied im Führerrat der Vaterländischen Front.1935

habilitierte sich Plöchl im Fach Kirchenrecht an der Universität Wien. 1938 wurde Plöchl als Landesbeamter und als Hochschullehrer entlassen. Er emigrierte in die Niederlande, wo er 1939/40 in Nimwegen wieder als Dozent arbeitete. In Paris wirkte Plöchl in der Ligue Autrichienne mit, die eine österreichische Exilregierung zu etablieren versuchte. Ähnliche Bestrebungen verfocht Plöchl auch im Exil in den USA, wo er 1941 bis 47 an der Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., lehrte. 1941 gründete Plöchl mit Hans Rott das Free Austrian National Council. Seine fortgesetzten Bemühungen um eine österreichische Exilregierung blieben aber erfolglos, nicht zuletzt weil Unstimmigkeiten mit Otto von Habsburg auftraten.1947 kehrte Plöchl nach

Österreich zurück. 1948 wurde er Extraordinarius für Kirchenrecht an der Wiener Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftlichen Fakultät, 1949 wurde er zum Ordinarius ernannt und übte diese Funktion bis zu seiner Emeritierung 1977 aus. http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dewiki/1516073

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207.) Posner, Ernst, 1938 (1944) American U / Archives Administration

1964 – Ernst Posner

Ernst Posner conducted the first systematic survey and analysis of state archives and records management program in the United States during the early 1960s. He traveled across the country, visiting every state archives in person, conducting interviews with staff, and collected substantial data on holdings, financial and staffing resources, reference use, storage capacity and conditions, and legal authority. He presents his findings state-by state and includes a description of programs and services for local government records when they existed.

We may prepare brief summaries of Posner’s findings if the Task Force feels that would be useful. We will certainly integrate some of his findings in the broader reports prepared for the project to illustrate progress (or lack thereof) in specific areas.

At the conclusion of the book, Posner presents a set of “standards” for state archives and records programs which includes a section on the “care and preservation of local archives,” reprinted here.

“Standards for State Archival Agencies”

From Ernst Posner, American State Archives (1964), pp. 363-364.

Care and Preservation of Local Archives

1. Whether or not is is charged with this function by law, the state archival agency cannot escape responsibility for the care and protection of local archives.

Local archives contain “grass-roots” information pertaining to the history of the state and data of the highest importance for research purposes.

2. Preservation of local archives is best achieved by concentrating them, whever practicable, in the custody of the state archival agency.

Where wholesale concentration of local archives is not possible or practical, at least records of the colonial, territorial, and early statehood periods should be concentrated in the state archives.

3. Insofar as physical concentration of local archives proves impractical, their preservation can be safeguarded by one of two measures: (2) the microfilming of records of permanent value, the storing of security copies, and the making available of reference copies in the state archival agency; or (b) the establishment of regional deositories for the preservation and administration of the originals.

Microfilming of local records and concentration of copies in the state archives not only provide security copies of the records but also enable the searcher to use local records in one central spot, where pertinent state agency records and other local records are also accessible to him. Next to physical concentration of the records, a microfilming program of this kind is the best protective device and is superior to the use of regional depositories. The latter should be established only in connection with the libraries of large state institutions of higher learning, where there are fully adequate facilities and where records will be serviced by competent staffs. The number of regional depositories should be kept to a minimum, legal custody of the records should be vested in the state archival agency, and processing—including the preparation of finding aids—must remain the task of the state archives staff.

–Ernst Posner, a former state archivist of the Prussian State Archives who emigrated to the United States in 1939 and joined the faculty of the American University. Posner was an SAA Fellow and President as well as author of American State Archives and Archives in the Ancient World.

Ernst Posner (1892–1980) surely would not have predicted his renown as an archival theorist. He was trained as a historian; however, military service interrupted his university studies, and shortly after the beginning of the First World War, he was severely wounded in Poland. Only in 1919 could he study again, and one year later he submitted a dissertation thesis on the registers of Pope Gregorius I (540–604). After his final examination, at the age of twentyeight, he entered archival service in the Prussian State Archives where his uncle had been a member of the staff in the middle of the nineteenth century. He wrote finding aids on holdings from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and answered questions from researchers. His thorough work on several volumes of the series of publications of sources for the history of administration in Prussia, the Acta Borussica, gave him an unparalleled and detailed knowledge of Prussia in the eighteenth century, and he was considered to be the only historian to read the most difficult handwriting of certain administrators of that time. He taught future archivists especially about the history of the holdings of the Prussian archives.

 His experiences and the atmosphere in the archives at Berlin had a huge influence on him, working there as he did for fifteen years until persecution against him as a child of a Jewish family led to his emigration in 1939.  He left Germany at the age of forty-six, returning ten years later as an American to become one of the first members of the new Society of German Archivists.Posner’s years on the staff of the Prussian Privy State Archives were among the most interesting in German archival history. After the First World War, voluminous masses of records swamped the archives with the dissolution of large agencies for the administrations of daily life during the war, triggering considerable debate on appraisal, and many interesting articles were published in the Archivalische Zeitschrift, edited by the Bavarian Archives. While these professional debates ceased after the National Socialist Party rose to power, this atmosphere of professional discussion was reflected in all the writings of Ernst Posner. Though it is impossible to identify the distinct personal influences of his former colleagues, one can recognize in his later writings certain ideas that were discussed in the Prussian State Archives at Berlin Dahlem.

–the former Acting Archivist of the United States on the internationalization of archival management, change, archival education and preparation for the future.

An archivist is a professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to information determined to have long-term value. The information maintained by an archivist can be any form of media (photographs, video or sound recordings, letters, documents, electronic records, etc.).

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208.) Prager, Richard (1942-1944) Harvard / Astronomy

Richard A. Prager (18831945) was a GermanAmerican astronomer.

He was born in Hannover, Germany. He became an assistant in the German Academy of Sciences in 1908. The following year he became head of the Observatorio Nacional in Santiago, Chile,[1] where he remained until 1913. He then returned to Berlin, becoming an observer at the Berlin-Babelsberg Observatory. In 1916 he became a professor.

He was an early pioneer of stellar photoelectric photometry. He is noted for his work in the field of variable stars,[1] and he made numerous contributions to Astronomische Nachrichten on this topic.

In 1938 he was imprisoned by the German Nazis. His friends in England obtained his release in 1939, and he moved to the United States where he accepted a position at the Harvard Observatory. However his health had suffered from his imprisonment and from his separation from his family, and he died only six years later. / The crater Prager on the Moon is named in his honor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Prager

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209.) Pribram, Karl (1933-1936, 1939-1944) US Tariff Commission / Economics

Pribram (1877-1973) worked at the Brookings Institution from 1933-35 and thereafter in the

Social Security Board.

Karl Přibram (18771973), also known as “Karl Pribram”, was an Austrian-born economist. He is most noted for his work in labor economics, in industrial organization, and in the history of economic thought.

Přibram analyzed post-scholastic economic thought into three competing traditions:

a nominalist tradition, which has typically provided foundations for liberal prescriptions

an intuitionist tradition, which formed an intellectual infrastructure for fascistic prescriptions

a tradition of Hegelian dialectics, which formed the intellectual infrastructure for Marxist Communism

Karl Pribram died in Washington, D.C., in 1973. / His papers are held in the German and Jewish Intellectual Émigré Collection of the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives of the libraries of the University at Albany, the State University of New York.

Positions * chief of the Legislative Division for Social Policy in the Austrian Ministry for Social Administration, 1918–21 / head of the research and statistical department at the International Labour Office, Geneva, 1921–28 / professor of economics at the University of Frankfurt am Main, 1928–33 / research member of the Brookings Institution, 1933–35 / member of the U.S. Social Security Board, 1935–42 / senior economist at the U.S. Tariff Commission, 1942–51 / professor of economics at American University.

Works * Lohnschutz des gewerblichen Arbeiters nach österreichischem Recht (1904) / Normalarbeitstag in den gewerblichen Betrieben und im Bergbaue Österreichs (1906) / Entstehung der individualistischen Sozialphilosophie (1912) / Probleme der internationalen Arbeitsstatistik (1925) / Unification of Social Insurance (1925) / “World-unemployment and Its Problems” in Unemployment as a world-problem (1931) by John Maynard Keynes, Karl Pribram, and E.J. Phelan; edited by Philip Quincy Wright / “Equilibrium concept and business cycle statistics” (1934), Institut International de statistique, 22nd section, London. / Cartel Problems; an Analysis of Collective Monopolies in Europe with American Application (1935) / Social Insurance in Europe and Social Security in the United States: a Comparative Analysis (1937) / Merit Rating and Unemployment Compensation (1937) / Principles Underlying Disqualifications for Benefits in Unemployment Compensation (1938) / Foreign Trade Policy of Austria (1945) / Conflicting Patterns of Thought (1949) / “Patterns of Economic Reasoning” in American Economic Review vol. 43 (2), Supplement (1953) / A History of Economic Reasoning (1983, posthumous and incomplete) published by the Johns Hopkins University Press http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_P%C5%99ibram

KARL PRIBRAM PAPERS, 1877-1973 (GER-005)

Karl Pribram (1877-1973) was an Austrian-born economist who held important positions before and during World War I in the Austrian government, with the International Labour Office in Geneva in the 1920s, and after his emigration to the United States in 1934, with the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., the U.S. Social Security Board and the U.S. Tariff Commission. Dr. Pribram also lectured at the University of Vienna, was Professor of Economics at the University of Frankfurt am Main from 1928 to 1933, and later at American University in Washington, D.C.

Pribram’s extensive writings cover topics in labor economics, industrial organization and in the history of economic thought. His works include Unification of Social Insurance (1925), Cartel Problems; An Analysis of Collective Monopolies in Europe with American Application (1935), Social Insurance in Europe and Social Security in the United States (1937), Foreign Trade Policy of Austria (1945), Conflicting Patterns of Thought (1949), and his posthumously published A History of Economic Reasoning (1983). Pribram has been described by Nobel Laureate Friedrich A. Hayek as “without exception the most learned man in the field.”

1877 Born on Dec. 2 in Prague, Czechoslovakia to Otto and Leonore Popper Pribram. 1895 Graduated from the Deutsches Staats-Gymnasium, Prague. 1895-1900 Studied law at the University of Prague. 1900 Received Dr. jur. from the University of Prague. 1900-1902 Practiced law 1902-1907 Studied social sciences, economics at the Universities of Berlin and Vienna. 1907 Habilitation in political economics at the University of Vienna. 1909-1921 Worked as statistician in the Austrian Civil Service (Wirtschaftsstatistik, Statistische Zentralkommission), eventually earning the title of Ministerialrat. 1914 Earned title of Professor, University of Vienna. 1919-1921 Chief of the Legislative Division for Social Policy in the Austrian Ministry for Social Administration. 1921-1928 Head of the Statistical Section of the International Office of Labor, Geneva, Switzerland. 1928-1933 Professor of economics, University of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 1929 Married Edith Körnei on April 4. 1933 Set sail from Hamburg, Germany on the S. S. Manhattan on Dec. 15. 1924 Receives degrees of Pol.Sc.D. and LL.D. from Halle, June 20 1934 Arrived in New York 1934-1936 Member of the research staff of the Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C. 1936-1942 Served as Senior Economic Expert on the U. S. Social Security Board. 1939-1952 Adjunct Professor of Economics at American University, Washington, D.C. 1942-1951 Served as Senior Economist at the U.S. Tariff Commission. 1973 Died on July 14 in Washington, D.C. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger005.htm

PRIBRAM, KARL (1877–1973), economist Papers, 1877–1973, 9 ft. (GER–005)
Correspondence, diaries, manuscripts, offprints, and other materials pertaining to the life and work of Pribram, an Émigré economist from Austria. During his long career, he was chief of the Legislative Division for Social Policy in the Ministry for Social Administration, 1918–1921; head of the research and statistical department at the International Labour Office, Geneva, 1921–1928; professor of economics at the University of Frankfurt am Main, 1928–1933; a research member of the Brookings Institution, 1933–35; member of the U.S. Social Security Board, 1935–1942; and senior economist at the U.S. Tariff Commission, 1942–1951. He later taught at American University. He was an expert on economic thought and policymaking. http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/emigre.htm#emigre

Apart from a number of reviews of his Il diritto and his posthumous Law and Social Action, five critical analyses of Pekelis’ idea of law and legal action exist: • Alessandro Levi, Il diritto (obbiettivo) come volontà costante (dello Stato), in Temi Emiliana, 1931, 41ff.; • Benedetto Croce, Conversazioni Critiche – Serie Quinta, Bari: Laterza, 1939, at 283-286; morePekelis is the author of one book and several essays: • Il diritto come volontà costante [“The Law as a Constant Will”], Padua: Cedam, 1930; • Saggio sui rapporti tra diritto e morale [“Essay on Morality and the Law”], Padua: Cedam, 1932; • Azione [“Legal Action”], in Nuovo Digesto Italiano, Turin: UTET, 1937; • Law and Social Action – Select Essays of Alexander H. Pekelis, edited by Milton R. Konvitz, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1950.Alexander Haim Pekelis was born in Odessa in 1902. In 1920 he escaped the Russian Revolution, moving first to Germany (Leipzig), then, in 1921, to Austria (Vienna), and finally, in 1924, to Italy (Florence and Rome, 1924-1938). His graduate thesis (1928) was published two years later under the title ll diritto come volontà costante (“The Law as a Constant Will”). In the early 1930s he was appointed as Libero Docente (professorship, non-tenured) of Philosophy of Law at the University of Rome, where he taught until 1938. In 1938, because of the Fascist Racial Laws, he fled Italy, and in 1941, after three years spent in Paris as an attorney, he came to the United States as a refugee.

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