Displaced Scholars

Pringsheim – Reiche

210.) Pringsheim, Peter (1933-1934, 1940-1944) U of C, Berkeley / Physics

“His research on Thomas Mann’s letters to his brother-in-law Peter Pringsheim during the latter’s internment in Australia during World War I is to appear in …” http://www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/staff/index.cfm?P=2932 * scientists Peter Pringsheim, Emil Gumbel, and Nobel Prize winner Otto Meyerhof; and musicians Erich Itor-Kahn and Wanda Landowska. …” http://www.varianfry.org/marino_quiet_american_en.htm The Advocacy of Marcel Vogel “In 1940 Vogel met Dr. Peter Pringsheim, a German refugee who was a professor at the University of California. It was with Dr. Pringsheim that Vogel …” iijewelry.com/advocacy.html Recent Acquisitions of the Niels Bohr Library – Fall 2001 Physics … “A biography of Peter Pringsheim was sent to us by Dr. Valentin Wehefritz (1999; 79 pp.). We received Elizabeth N. Shor’s biography of Victor Vacquier …” http://www.aip.org/history/newsletter/fall2001/recentacqfall2001.htm Contents “Peter Pringsheim (1881-1963). 1-4 by Alfons Kawski. C. ONFERENCE. R. EPORTS. International Workshop on Environmental Photochemistry, …” photochemistry.eu/newsletter/contents63.pdf Aleksander Jablonski “After receiving his doctorate, Jablonski spent two years (1930-1931) as a fellow of the Rockefeller Foundation in Germany working with Peter Pringsheim at …” http://www.fizyka.umk.pl/~lum98/aj.html 1893—1977 “Peter Pringsheim on the newly discovered Raman effect. He was especially stimulated by Pringsheim, and also by. Walter Nernst, the head of the physical …” books.nap.edu/html/biomems/dyost.pdf http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Pringsheim


211.) Quintanilla, Luis (1940-1943) NYC / Painting

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A Little About Quintanilla (1893-1978)

Starting out as a Cubist under the influence of his friend, Juan Gris, Quintanilla eventually became a prominent Spanish draftsman and muralist. Though he would have far preferred to be left alone to paint in peace without engaging in politics he was eventually drawn into the tumultuous affairs of his times. In 1931 he and Juan Negrin, the Premier of the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, put the flag of the Republic up on the Royal Palace in Madrid ensuring that the revolution which ousted the king would remain bloodless. In October of 1934 Quintanilla started a prison term lasting eight months, four days, and three hours for hosting, in his studio, the revolutionary committee of the October revolt. As has happened on other occasions when a prominent artist has found himself in jail, the world’s intellectual community rallied to his aid. Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos circulated the petitions and organized the protests in the United States, Andre Malraux in France, and Lady Margo Asquith, wife of the former Prime Minister, performed the same service in Britain. And a show of his Madrid street scene etchings took place at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York with a catalog by Hemingway and Dos Passos. This show introduced him to the United States. When the Spanish Civil War started in July, 1936, Quintanilla helped lead the attack on the Montana Barracks which saved Madrid for the government. He was made the commander of the barracks at the start of the war and led men in action on the streets of Madrid, Toledo, and in the Guadarrama Mountains. In the spring of 1937 he was removed from these and other duties by Juan Negrin and commissioned to do a set of drawings of the war. These were shown first in 1938 at the Barcelona Ritz and then in the Museum of Modern Art in New York with a catalog by Hemingway. With the fall of the Spanish Republic in 1939 he was forced into an exile which lasted more than 37 years, living first in New York and then in Paris. A year following the death of Spain’s dictator, General Francisco Franco, Quintanilla returned to Madrid where he spent the remaining two years of his life. He died at the age of 85. –Paul Quintanilla http://www.lqart.org/ 


212.) Rabel, Ernst (1935, 1939-1945) ??NS?? / Law

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11th Ernst Rabel Lecture “Berkeley) will deliver the 11th Ernst Rabel Lecture at the Max Planck Institute for Private Law. His address will compare corporate law …” http://www.mpipriv.de/_custompdf.cfm?sfile2pdf=ww/en/pub/news/events/archive_2008/11th_ernst_rabel_vorlesung_print.cfm Sculpting the Agenda of Comparative Law: Ernst Rabel and the … “Sculpting the Agenda of Comparative Law: Ernst Rabel and the Façade of Language, in Rethinking the Masters of Comparative Law (Hart Publishing 2001). …” works.bepress.com/david_gerber/49/ Dr. Ernst Rabel and Dr. Elemer Balogh “IN Dr. Ernst Rabel and Dr. Elemer Balogh comparative law has lost two of its most prominent figures. Both were natives of the …” journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=1468648 Gesammelte Schriften “Obituary: In Memory of Ernst Rabel* On September 7th, 1955, Ernst Rabel died in Zurich, Switzerland, in the 82nd year of his life. He was European by birth, …” http://books.google.com/books?id=lqXqZ8yrNu0C&pg=PA199&lpg=PA199&dq=Ernst+Rabel&source=bl&ots=mfkil2WpnN&sig=G1LmGstGjF0mQkTBwFnHQQaw9Aw&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Ernst%20Rabel&f=false * more coming


213.) Racah, Giulio (1942-1944) Hebrew U / Physics

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Giulio (Yoel) Racah (Hebrew: פרופסור (יואל) רקח; 1909August 28, 1965) was an ItalianIsraeli physicist and mathematician.

Born in Florence, Italy, he took his PhD from the University there in 1930, and later studied in Rome with Enrico Fermi. In 1937 he was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa. In 1939, due to appliction of Anti-Jewish laws in Italy, Racah immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine, and was appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he was later Dean of the Faculty of Sciences, and finally Rector and acting President. The physics institute at the Hebrew University is named “Racah Institute of Physics”.

Racah’s research was mainly in the fields of quantum physics and atomic spectroscopy. He first devised a systematic general procedure for classifying the energy levels of open shell atoms, which remains to this day the accepted technique for practical calculations of atomic structure. This formalism was described in a monograph coauthored by his cousin: Ugo Fano (Irreducible Tensorial Sets, 1959). / In 1958, Racah was awarded the Israel Prize in exact sciences. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giulio_Racah

Giulio (Yoel) Racah (1909 – August 28, 1965) was an Israeli physicist and mathematician.

Born in Florence, Italy, he took his PhD from the University there in 1930, and later studied in Rome with Enrico Fermi. In 1939 Racah immigrated to Palestine, and was appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he was later Dean of the Faculty of Sciences, and finally Rector and acting President.

Racah’s research was mainly in the fields of quantum physics and atomic spectroscopy. In 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize for lifetime contribution to physics. http://www.biographybase.com/biography/Racah_Giulio.html


215.) Rademacher, Hans (1934-1936, 1939-1944) Grad. School, U of Pennsylvania / Mathematics

See full size image Hans Adolph Rademacher (1892, Wandsbeck, now Hamburg-Wandsbek – 1969, Haverford, Pennsylvania, USA) was a German mathematician, known for work in mathematical analysis and number theory. He emigrated from Europe in 1934. Constantin Carathéodory supervised his dissertation. / Rademacher had a number of well known students, including George Andrews and Theodor Estermann.

After leaving Germany, he moved to Philadelphia and worked at the University of Pennsylvania until his retirement in 1962; he held the Thomas A. Scott Professorship of Mathematics at Pennsylvania from 1956 to 1962. His distinguished scope of work includes analytic number theory, mathematical genetics, the theory of functions of a real variable, and quantum theory. Most notably, he developed the theory of Dedekind sums.

With his retirement from the University of Pennsylvania, a group of mathematicians provided the seed funding for The Hans A. Rademacher Instructorships, and honored him with an honorary degree as Doctor of Science. He was known for his kindness to colleagues and students. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Rademacher

Hans Rademacher (1892–1969) by Bruce C. Berndt (Urbana, Ill.)

Hans Rademacher was born of Lutheran parents on April 3, 1892 in Wandsbek, near Hamburg. His mother and father, Emma and Henry, owned a local store. There were two others in the family, a brother Martin and a sister Erna. By the time Rademacher entered the University in Gottingen in 1910, he had developed a great breadth of interests, an attribute that would be transformed in his later mathematical life into a creative interest in many branches of mathematics. At the age of 18 he had a curiosity, etc., etc. http://matwbn.icm.edu.pl/ksiazki/aa/aa61/aa6131.pdf

Dr. Hans Rademacher, formerly professor of mathematics at the University of Breslau, has been appointed to a visiting professorship at the University of Pennsylvania, under a joint grant from the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars and the Rockefeller Foundation.


216.) Ranke, Hermann (1937-1943) U of Pennsylvania / Archaeology

See full size image Hermann Ranke (b.1878-??). “BABYLONIAN LEGAL AND BUSINESS DOCUMENTS PROM THE TIME OF THE FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON CHIEFLY FROM SIPPAR BY HERMANN RANKE, Ph.D. HiLFSARBEITER A. D. …” http://www.archive.org/stream/babylonianexpedi06univuoft/babylonianexpedi06univuoft_djvu.txt * “1913-14: A German expedition led by Hermann Ranke. The temple was planned and recorded, and a number of Graeco-Roman houses were excavated. …” neareastern.berkeley.edu/hibeh/references.htm * “”In some cases in which human help seemed to be impossible,” observes Hermann Ranke, a last attempt was made to get help from a supernatural source. …” dodd.cmcvellore.ac.in/hom/01%20-%20Medicine%20in%20Ancient%20Egypt.html * “Hermann Ranke, in his presentation of translations of legal and business documents, comments that women in the First Dynasty “apparently” had equal rights. …” http://www.widdershins.org/vol6iss6/10.html * founder, Professor Hermann Ranke. Ranke, an exceptionally industrious scholar, established this institute in 1910. He produced more scientific …”

Books by Hermann Ranke Das Gilgamesch-Epos. Der älteste überlieferte Mythos der Geschichte * Chefs-d’oeuvre de l’art égyptien * Babylonian legal and business documents from the time of the first dynasty… * The Art of Ancient Egypt : Architecture, Sculpture, Painting & Applied Art * Die Ägyptischen Personennamen Band 3 * Early Babylonian personal names from the published tablets of the… * Die Ägyptischen Personennamen Band 1 * Die Ägyptischen Personennamen Band 2 * Masterpieces of Egyptian art. by Hermann Ranke.

Time Mag / Arrested in 1945 as enemy inside the gates:

Comforts of Home. In Philadelphia, FBI men picked up Princess Stephanie Hohenlohe. 45, who had last been reported in Mexico, and Dr. Hermann Ranke, one of the world’s ranking Egyptologists, who held a visiting professorship at the University of Pennsylvania.


217.) Ranshofen-Wertheimer, Egon Ferdinand (1940-1944) ??NS?? / Political Science

Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer (1894, in Ranshofen/Braunau am Inn1957, in New York) was a diplomat, journalist, doctor of laws and state.

Life / Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer was born as the son of the Catholic land owner and member of the Upper Austrian parliament Julius Wertheimer in Ranshofen near Braunau. His family had Jewish roots and so they fled Austria in 1938 because of the growing threat of the Nazi government.

During the first World War he got introduced to Marxist ideology and studied in Vienna, Munich and Heidelberg after the war. He later developed a more and more pragmatic mental attitude and changed into a social democrat. He started to work as an editor in Hamburg and until 1930 as a foreign correspondent for the social-democratic news paper Forward in London. In this period he wrote his first book Portrait of the British Labour Party that became a bestseller, and he made first contact with Leopold Kohr, a young journalist and economist from Salzburg, later author of The Breakdown of Nations.

His book raised the awareness of the British government, who had a big influence on the League of Nations. Because of that he got the chance to work as diplomat and supervisor of the League of Nations for 10 years in Geneva, beginning in 1930.

Because of the incidents in Europe he emigrated to America, where he worked at the American University in Washington as a professor. In addition he was employed as a consultant of the United States ministry for foreign affairs and supported the US government in the struggle against Hitler-Germany. There, he and his younger colleague Leopold Kohr began to criticize the National Socialist Germany through venues such as the New York Times.

Shortly after the Second World War, Egon Ranshofen began to work as executive, supervisor, and diplomat for the UNO. His book “A Great Experiment in International Administration” had a substantial influence on the developing of the UNO.

Ranshofen-Wertheimer and Kohr also lobbied for an independent Austria. That the young second republic of Austria got a member of the UNO rather fast can be attributed to the engagement of Ranshofen-Wertheimer.

Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer is buried in the cemetery of the castle Ranshofen in his family grave.

The 16th Braunau Contemporary History Days in September 2007, with the title “Peacemakers manual”, will focus on the life of Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer.

The Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer Award (ERWA) was founded by the Society for Contemporary History in Braunau am Inn in the beginning of 2007.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egon_Ranshofen-Wertheimer

Author of such illuminating works as “The International Secretariat, a Great Experiment in International Administration” (1945);”Victory is Not Enough; the Strategy For a Lasting Peace” (1942); “The Position Of The Executive And Administrative Heads Of The United Nations International Organizations”; “International Administration: Lessons From The Experience Of The League Of Nations”; “Portrait of the Labour Party” (1929).


218.) Rapp, Franz J. (1935-1944) NY Public Library / History of Theater Art

“Erwin Panovsky; Nikolaus Pevsner; Leo van Puyvelde; Franz J Rapp; Walter Riezler Shelfmark: MS. S.P.S.L. 191/1-6. Extent: 661 leaves …” http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html * “Erwin Panovsky; Nikolaus Pevsner; Leo van Puyvelde; Franz J Rapp; Walter Riezler … http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk. PENTEK timing KEG …” http://www.123people.de/s/annelies+panovsky Erwin F Finlay-Freundlich “F Correspondence with individuals. G Correspondence with donors … Erwin Panovsky; Nikolaus Pevsner; Leo van Puyvelde; Franz J Rapp; Walter Riezler . …” daleboo.com/search/results.php?offset=30&searchterm=Erwin+F+Finlay-Freundlich&sort=


219.) Raubitschek, Antony Erich (1940-1941, 1944-1945) Yale / Archaeology

Antony Erich Raubitschek, born into a medical family in Vienna, was one of the last of a group of …”
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9114(199910)103%3A4%3C697%3AAER1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8 * “Antony Erich Raubitschek (1912-1999) was a classical scholar, epigrapher and archaeologist of ancient Greece. His most important publication was …”
Name: RAUBITSCHEK, Antony Erich / Title: Professor / Born: 1912 Died: 1999

Publication(s) reported in: Newsletter of the Association of Ancient Historians; Obituary from the Department of Classics, Stanford University / Date(s) reported: — Summary: Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton (1938-42); Yale (1942-47); Associate Professor of Classics, Princeton (1947-63); Professor of Classics, Stanford (1963-99); Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art (1999) http://icls.sas.ac.uk/library/Cuttings/HTML%20Drawer%201/OBITUARIES%20’R’.htm


220.) Regener, Victor (1940-1941, 1944) U of Chicago / Physics

See full size image Noted UNM Physics and Astronomy professor Victor Regener dies

Victor H. Regener, born August 25, 1913, in Berlin, Germany, died on January 20, 2006, in Tampa, Florida. His father was a Professor of Physics at Stuttgart University, and Victor completed his doctoral degree in Engineering Physics at the Institute of Technology, in Stuttgart, in 1938. He left Germany that same year because of the rise of the Nazi regime, first taking a two-year research position in Italy at the University of Padua, and then teaching at the University of Chicago.

Photo: Dr. Victor H. Regener

In 1946, he came to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of New Mexico, serving as Department Chair from 1947-57, and again from 1962-79. In 1960, he was the first faculty scholar to deliver the Annual UNM Research Lecture. He built Capilla Peak Observatory in the Manzano Mountains, and was also responsible for designing a major addition to the original Physics and Astronomy building, as well as the lecture hall and lab building which was named Regener Hall in his honor.

He was a brilliant scientist in a wide range of fields, and an outstanding teacher and mentor. When he retired in 1979, he was awarded the UNM Regents’ Meritorious Service Medal, which included a dedication penned by author Tony Hillerman.

Dr. Regener is survived by his wife Birgit, son Eric, his daughter Vivian, her spouse Richard Rose, four grandchildren, and three great grandchildren. There will be a memorial service in Albuquerque at the Monte Vista Christian Church, 3501 Campus Drive N.E., on Saturday, Jan. 28, beginning at 10 a.m.

A reception will be held immediately following the service in the lobby of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, located on the northeast corner of Yale and Lomas Blvds.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be made to the Victor H. Regener Memorial Fund, c/o the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Blvd NE, MSC 07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131. http://www.unm.edu/~market/cgi-bin/archives/001011.html

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sci.: Atmospheric Physics – Storming … “The Final Report contains a paper entitled On the Flux of Atmospheric Ozone near the Ground by Victor H. Regener, as well as a report on further …” http://www.stormingmedia.us/cat/sub/subcat31-128.html * “Victor H. Regener, Department of Physics; Nature of Penetrating Showers in Cosmic. Radiation; 1 year; $4500. hNNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE, State College, Pa.; …” http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1952/annualreports/ar_1952_appendix2.pdf * Space Astronomy Oral History Project, O-S “92 Cosmic ray work at University of Colorado Victor Regener. 93 Role in launching of V-2s in 1946. 94 Rocket explosion in October 1946 …” nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/saohp-p3.html


221.) Reiche, Fritz (1934-1935, 1938-1945) College of City of NY / Physics


Fritz Reiche was born on July 4, 1883 in Berlin, Germany. He attended the University of Munich (1901-1902) and the University of Berlin (1902-1907). He received his Ph.D. in 1907 after studying with Max Planck. Reiche worked at the University of Breslau (1908-1911), and taught at the University of Berlin (1911-1913). He was an instructor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin (1913-1921); during this period he was also an assistant to Professor Planck (1915-1918), and worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin-Dahlem (1919-1921). Up until 1921, Reiche’s work focused mainly on optical theories, including his studies on refraction principles, the diffraction of light, and the emission and absorption distribution of spectral lines. In 1921 he moved to the University of Breslau as professor of theoretical physics. At about this time, Reiche’s work began to focus more on quantum theory. His position at Breslau ended abruptly with the Nazi dismissal of Jewish scientists in 1933. Reiche left Germany for two years as a guest lecturer at the German University in Prague, but he returned to Berlin in 1935.Reiche held no academic position until 1941 when he and his family immigrated to the United States and he brought news of the German advances in production of fissionable material. In 1941 he became an associate professor of physics at the New School for Social Research in New York. He was an instructor at the City College in New York (1942-1944) and a lecturer at Union College in Schenectady, New York (1944-1946). In 1946 he became an adjunct professor at New York University and remained there until his retirement from teaching in 1958. At NYU, Reiche taught such subjects as theoretical physics, wave mechanics, and thermodynamics. He also carried out special research projects for NASA and the U.S. Navy on supersonic flow. After 1958, he continued his research as the Senior Research Scientist at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University in the division of electromagnetic research on the difference between the number of modes of wave propagation in magneto-hydrodynamics and in electromagnetics, until a few days before his death on January 18, 1969. http://www.aip.org/history/ead/20020127.html * http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4841_1.html

Interview with Fritz Reiche by Thomas S. Kuhn and George E. Uhlenbeck at the Rockefeller Institute, New York, NY 30 March, 1962

Fritz Reiche (1883-1969) was a distinguished theoretical physicist, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Roentgen, Max Planck, Fritz Haber, Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Max Born, Max von Laue and other early luminaries. He was coauthor of the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, and author of the seminal book The Quantum Theory, first published in 1920. He was one of the last Jewish physicists to leave Germany during the Nazi period, in 1941. In his book “Heisenberg’s War” Thomas Powers relates that Reiche bore news of German work on nuclear fission, in a message from Friedrich Houtermans to Wigner and others in Princeton, where Reiche lived in Einstein’s home during the summer of 1941. Reiche’s son Hans later claimed that this incident played a significant role in convincing Einstein to write that letter to President Roosevelt. In this talk I will relate the difficulties Reiche experienced, first in leaving Germany and then in reestablishing his physics career in the US. He finally obtained an adjunct position at NYU where he served until his retirement. The role played by the renowned Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars will be discussed. The particular role played by Ladenburg, who was instrumental in obtaining a small grant for Reiche permitting him to obtain a US visa, in helping many physicists leave Nazi Germany and occupied countries, will also be described. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..APR.H8004B

In Appreciation Fritz Reiche and the Emergency Committee in Aid of … “whose name was Fritz Reiche.This course turned out to be the most memorable one ….. Fritz Reiche. Reproduced by permission of the Manuscripts and Archives …” http://www.bederson.org/bensr/Fritz%20Reiche.pdfFritz Reiche (1883–1969, figure 1) was born in Berlin to cultured, assimilated Jewish parents. He completed his secondary education in 1901, at age 18, at the College Royal Français, one of the most famous Gymnasia in Berlin, which his father and several relatives had attended earlier. He then went to Munich for a year, studying physics, mathematics, and chemistry, attending lectures by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), the discoverer of X rays, among others. Returning to Berlin, by chance he happened to hear a lecture on thermodynamics by Max Planck (1858–1947) at the University of Berlin and was so impressed that he immediately decided to study further with Planck – a decision that was reinforced when, during the following semester, he witnessed Planck derive his recently published law of blackbody radiation. Reiche received his Ph.D. degree under Planck in 1907.

The following year, on the advice of Planck and Eugen Goldstein (1850–1930), the discoverer of the “canal rays,” Reiche went to the University of Breslau to work with Otto Lummer (1860–1925) on blackbody radiation. He also met his lifelong friend Rudolf Ladenburg (1882–1952) there, who later would play a key role in getting Reiche to the United States. In his curriculum vitae,3 Reiche admits that in Breslau, despite his preparatory work in experimental physics, his experimental abilities proved to be nonexistent. Indeed, by causing flooding and small explosions in the laboratory, he was deemed to be a danger to the institute. He remarked, however, that he “took comfort” that his colleague and friend, Max Born (1882–1970), was “not inferior to me in these ‘mishaps’.” Historian Scott Walter n etc etc.

Key words: Kallmann; Rudolf Ladenburg; Philipp Lenard; Edward R. Murrow; Siegfried Ochs; Max Planck; Clemens Schaefer; Harlow Shapley; New York University; University of Berlin; University of Breslau; Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars; New School for Social Research; Nazi Germany; German bomb project; refugees; quantum theory; nuclear physics.

Thomas Powers, in his book Heisenberg’s War,16 describes Reiche’s life in Germany, especially during the period 1935–1941, and the role he played in bringing news of the German nuclear project to America. Friedrich (Fritz) Houtermans (1903–1966),17 who had just been released from the Gestapo prison in Berlin in January 1941 and soon thereafter wrote a report in which he proposed means of producing element 94 (plutonium),* had Reiche commit to memory a message to the effect that the German government was serious about making atomic bombs, and that scientists in America should accelerate their efforts. According to Powers, as related to him by Reiche, Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), among others, was trying to hinder the German effort,** but they could not withstand the pressure from the Nazi regime to do so much longer.

Reiche delivered this message when he reached Princeton to an assembly of luminaries that included Eugene Wigner (1902–1995),Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958), John von Neumann (1903–1957), and Hans Bethe (1906–2005). As dramatic as Reiche’s message was, however, Powers concluded that it seems to have had no ignificant effect on the thinking of these people.***

* Between 1927 and 1937, Houtermans worked in Göttingen, Berlin,London,and Kharkov,and in December 1937, although he had been a member of the German Communist Party since the 1920s, he was arrested in Moscow by the NKVD (the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), imprisoned, and tortured. His wife Charlotte neé Riefenstahl (no relation to the notorious German film maker Leni), who also received her Ph.D. degree in physics at the University of Göttingen in 1927 and whom he had married in 1930, managed to get away to England with their two children, Giovanna and Jan, from where she made extraordinary efforts to get him released, but to no avail. He was not released until April 1940 – and then into the hands of the Gestapo. Only the courageous efforts of Max von Laue (1879–1960) secured his release from the Gestapo prison in Berlin and, in January 1941, obtained a position for him in a private laboratory in Lichterfelde near Berlin where he worked during the war. See Khriplovich, “Eventful Life” (ref. 17); Amaldi, “adventurous life” (ref. 17); and Landrock, “Friedrich Georg Houtermans” (ref. 17).

** Heisenberg’s motives and role in the German nuclear project remain a subject of controversy among historians and physicists to this day.

*** In his reminiscence of his father (ref. 6), Reiche’s son Hans claimed that his father’s message had an important effect on the thinking of Einstein and Leo Szilard and influenced Einstein’s famous letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.This, however, cannot be the case, since Einstein’s letter was dated August 2, 1939, almost two years before Reiche arrived in America.

Evaluation of Fritz Reiche by the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, June 19, 1942, stating that he (and his family) “Will stay in Einstein’s house this summer.” Reproduced by permission of the Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.

Many Americans, often without the assistance of the government, helped the refugees. I single out three, each of whom was closely connected with the Emergency Committee: Alvin S. Johnson (1874–1971), Harlow Shapley (1885–1971), and Edward R. Murrow (1908–1965). Johnson was instrumental in establishing the Emergency Committee; he was President of the New School for Social Research in New York, an innovative and feisty institution that was founded after the First World War. Its emphasis was then and remains today on the social sciences. Indeed, between the two world wars it became a home for many distinguished Freudian scholars, philosophers, and social scientists. In 1933 Johnson organized a “school within a school,” the “University in Exile,”* specifically to create a home for European refugee scholars;22 this offshoot was reabsorbed later into the main body of the New School. This was Fritz Reiche’s Fig. 6. Letter from Betty Drury to Rudolf Ladenburg dated May 2, 1939, asking for information about Fritz Reiche. Reproduced by permission of the Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.

* The University in Exile was conceived and founded by Alvin Johnson. It was supported by the philanthropist Hiram Halle and the Rockefeller Foundation, initiating a historic effort to rescue endangered scholars who had been dismissed from teaching and government positions by totalitarian regimes in Europe. Among the 167 scholars, along with their families, it rescued, were Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), a founder of the Gestalt school of psychology, and a number of other distinguished psychiatrists, economists, and philosophers. See the New School website www.newschool.edu/aboutnsu/content/fr_ata/history5c.html.

…first institutional home after arriving in America in 1941. He taught physics there, probably to some very poorly prepared social-science majors.

Harlow Shapley, the Harvard astronomer, actively recruited applicants for support by the Emergency Committee (figure 7). He was an outspoken anti-Nazi who never lost an opportunity to condemn the Nazi movement, both before and after Hitler came to power in 1933. Edward R. Murrow served as Assistant Executive Secretary of the Emergency Committee for two years after its inception in 1933. He stated its manifesto in its first annual report in 1934:

A thrust at the very soul of the University brought into existence the Emergency Committee. Ancient sanctions, rights treasured as inalienable ideals achieved through sacrifice have been destroyed.… Universitites are at once the storehouses and the manufactories of the culture of a society. An attack upon them is an attack upon the very symbols by which a State lives.… To fail to strengthen them … is to expose them and the States they serve to changes, expressed in doctrine, for which the common mind of the community is not prepared and which on mature deliberation it may not be willing to embrace.23

The Emergency Committee, located in New York City at 2 West 45th Street in the Institute of International Education [figure 9], was organized in May, 1933, to serve the needs of university professors who had been dismissed by German universities because of political opinions or anti-Semitic legislation, and to preserve their attainments for the benefit of scholarship in the United States.With the outbreak of Nazi aggression the Committee revised its mission so as to include refugee professors from all countries in Western Europe overrun by the Nazi armies. Dr. Livingstgon Farrand became Chairman of the Committee; Dr. Stephan Duggan became its Secretary, and after the death of Farrand, its Chairman; and Fred M. Stein became its Treasurer. Edward R. Murrow served as Assistant Secretary until 1935, followed by Professor John H.Whyte (1935–1937), Betty Drury (1937–1944) and finally, by Dr. Francis Fenton Park (1945). Professor Nelson P. Meade and Professor L.C. Dunn were added to Messers. Farrand, Stein and Duggan to form an Executive Committee.

The Committee disbanded in June, 1945.24

The unsuccessful applicants, because they were assured of other support, included philosopher Hannah Arendt, statesman Bernard Baruch, journalist Max Ascoli, and composer Béla Bartók.

Appendix: Fritz Reiche Curriculum Vitae25

I was born on July 4, 1883, in Berlin. In 1891, after preparations at home, I entered the Septima of Dr. Georg Schulze. Already my father, Ludwig Reiche, my cousin, Martin Wolff (later a well-known teacher of jurisprudence at Berlin University), and many other relatives had attended this famous Gymnasium. In October 1901 I graduated from this school, after passing the Abitur,*** along with nine others, of whom unfortunately most are already deceased. For my first year of study I went to Munich to attend introductory lectures in physics, mathematics, and chemistry. The great course in experimental physics at that time was given by Prof.Wilhelm C. Röntgen, who a few years earlier (1895) had made his world-famous discovery of X rays in Würzburg. I remember that in the first row of the great amphitheater-like, continually ascending lecture hall a young, very attractive girl sat with her brother: Katja, the daughter of the mathematician Alfred Pringsheim, who eagerly studied mathematics and who later became the wife of Thomas Mann. She appeared exactly as Thomas Mann portrayed her as Imma Spoelmann in his charming novel “Royal Highness” [of 1916].

* I provide a complete list of successful applicants on my Reiche website (ref. 2).

** The Fritz Reiche Papers were deposited by his family in the Niels Bohr Library, American Institute of Physics, College Park, Maryland. The Finding Aid can be found at the website www.aip.org/history/ead/aip_reiche/20020127_content.html. See also my Reiche website (ref. 2).

***The Abitur is the rigorous examination that students take on the completion of their Gymnasium education. Passing it is prerequisite to entering a university for further study.

Without having a clear idea about whether I should chose to study physics or chemistry, in October 1902 I returned to Berlin, where my parents lived.

As if by chance I happened to hear a thermodynamics lecture by Max Planck, the great theoretical physicist at the University of Berlin, who treated the then-known entire field of theoretical physics in six succeeding semesters. I don’t believe that I was sufficiently prepared to really exactly understand thermodynamics (given in the fifth of the six semesters). Nevertheless, I was so strongly impressed and captivated by Planck’s clear and thoroughly prepared presentation that I immediately decided to remain in Berlin to study further with Planck and, if possible, to choose theoretical physics as my major field of study.This decision was further reinforced because Planck, to the great enthusiasm of his students, introduced in the sixth semester for the first time his brilliant derivation of the previously unknown law of blackbody radiation, which was based on his revolutionary quantum hypothesis – an advance of singular significance, the foundation of modern atomic and nuclear physics!

After I completed my doctoral studies and passed my examination under Planck in 1907, on the advice of Planck and of Prof. Eugen Goldstein (the discoverer of the “canal rays”), I moved to Breslau, to broaden my too one-sided theoretical education through the thorough study of experimental physics, above all with Prof.Otto Lummer.

These three Breslau years (1908–1911) belong to my fondest memories, because of the close, highly exciting joint work with Lummer, and the lifelong friendship I developed with Rudolf Ladenburg and Clemens Schaeffer. To be sure, I sadly admit that, despite the outstanding preparation, my experimental abilities proved to be nonexistent; indeed, that through flooding and small explosions, which I had caused, I came to be called a danger to the institute. I took comfort in the conviction that my colleague and friend, Prof. Max Born (the great theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize winner), is not inferior to me in these “mishaps.”

In 1910 (or 1911) the members of the Physical Institute went to Salzburg to the Naturforscher meeting. There I saw and heard for the first time Albert Einstein: he spoke on the nature of light and developed, on the basis of Planck’s quantum hypothesis, his so-called photon theory of radiation in a highly original, impressive manner.*

After my return to Berlin, I dedicated myself to the preparation of my Habilitation (as Privatdozent), which I attained in 1913. At the beginning of 1914 I established my personal household. My wife is the daughter of Siegfried Ochs, the founder and the longtime Director of the Philharmonic Choir in Berlin.Thus it was natural that the love of music has played a large role in our lives.

During the First World War, from 1915–1918, I was an assistant to Prof. Planck, and

in its last years I was employed as a menial laborer in the gas-mask department ([of the] Osram [company]), which was under Prof. Fritz Haber’s directorship. In these years I had the good fortune to get to know Prof. Einstein more closely and to admire him.We often walked together through the Tiergarten to the Physical Institute on the Reichstagsufer to participate in the physics colloquium. The circle of great scientists who met there was overwhelming: I name only the names of Planck, Einstein, Max von Laue, Rubens, Nernst, James Franck, Gustav Hertz, and many others.

During the year 1920 I was employed as a theoretical advisor at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical and Electrochemistry, under Prof. Haber, where I again met many old friends and acquaintances, among whom above all Rudolf Ladenburg, James Franck, Hertha Sponer, and Hartmut Kallmann.

In this period occurred, if my memory does not deceive me, the general Naturforscher meeting in Bad Nauheim, unforgettable owing to Einstein’s great lecture on his general theory of relativity (of 1916) and the lively discussion (lasting many hours) in which Einstein’s enemies, above all Ph. Lenard, Joh. Stark, E. Gehrke, etc., sharply attacked his new theory.* It was a pleasure to experience the calmness, patience, and objectivity with which Einstein reduced all objections to absurdities.

In the Summer of 1921, I received, to my great joy, a call as persönlicher ordinarius to the Chair of Theoretical Physics at the University of Breslau, which through the resignation of Erwin Schrödinger, the creator of wave mechanics, had become available. We therefore moved, in November 1921, with our two children, to this beautiful, old and to me very familiar city (which is now in Poland), and began twelve lively, and in every respect highly exciting academic years, which we enjoyed extraordinarily. Many old acquatintanceships with colleagues and other friends were deepened and new, interesting connections of a scientific and human kind were established.Unfortunately, Otto Lummer, the Director of the Physical Institute, with whom I had been very close, died five years later. To my great pleasure, a steadfast, lifelong friendship developed with his successor, Clemens Schaefer, whose coworker I had been during my first stay in Breslau.

Hitler’s seizure of power in 1933 abruptly ended this fortunate period in our lives through my so-called “transfer into retirement.”We left Breslau at Easter 1934, and returned for a short time to Berlin. I had the good fortune, through the help of my friend Rudolf Ladenburg, who since 1931 was in Princeton in the U.S.A., to receive a call as a visiting professor to the German University in Prague.With great thankfulness my wife and I think about our stay in this singular, magnificent, old city and about the hospitality of our closest colleagues there, Prof. Phillip Frank, Prof. Reinhold Fürth, and the mathematician Prof. Karl Loewner.

In the summer of 1935 we (unfortunately!) returned to Berlin, and for us the difficult, tragic time began, which I do not need to mention here. One bright moment during these years was that I received an invitation from Prof. Niels Bohr in 1936 to participate in one of the regular conferences led by him in Copenhagen on atomic and nuclear physics. The stay in this beautiful, bright, and happy city, and the circle of famous scientists assembled there, will always remain unforgettable to me.

Through the great and decisive help of many friends and colleagues in the U.S.A., above all of Rudolf Ladenburg, Princeton, N.J., and Mark W. Zemansky (City College, NY), I succeeded, after considerable difficulties, at the beginning of 1941, on the basis of a call to the New School for Social Research (New York) to obtain an American visa for myself, my wife, and our daughter. (Our son had already emigrated to England in the summer of 1939. He now lives in Ottawa, Canada, and works as a radio expert for the Canadian government.) In the middle of March we could leave Berlin, and going through occupied France on the way, reach Lisbon, from where the beautiful American ship Excalibur brought us after ten days to New York.

During our first year in America, I gave popular lectures on classical and modern physics at the New School for Social Research. I am obliged, with the deepest and lasting thanks, to the then-President of the New School, Prof. Alvin Johnson, and our friend (also a colleague) at the New School, Prof. Eduard Heiman.

From 1942–1944, thanks to the help of Prof. Zemansky, I was employed as an Instructor in the Physics Department of the City College in New York, which had greatly expanded during the war, and there for the first time in the U.S.A. I had the opportunity to teach large classes of students in elementary and advanced courses.

1944–1946 I found a position in Schenectady, N.Y., at the old, relatively small, but very beautiful and venerable Union College, as Lecturer in Physics.We spent there two very enjoyable years, although we were deeply saddened about the news we received from Germany at that time about the fate of our closest relatives and friends.

After the expiration of my contract with Union College, I looked in vain for several weeks for a new position – I was 63 years old, and 65 is the normal “retirement age.” But I was in luck: One evening the Chairman of the Physics Department of New York University, University Heights, called me from New York and offered me a position as Adjunct Professor of Physics – at first in any case for one year, but with the prospect of a further extension. Thus I came in the fall of 1946 to this large university and have been “extended” there, thanks to the friendly agreement of the Department Chairman, from year to year until my “retirement” in 1958 (I was meanwhile 75).

Aside from my substantially younger, closest colleagues in our department, I also came into contact again with my friend and former assistant in Breslau, Prof. H.F. Ludloff. I have worked together with him scientifically several times during these years.

I see as especially good fortune my meeting the mathematician Prof. Morris Kline, the Director of the “Division for Electromagnetic Research” in the Courant Institute for Mathematical Sciences, who had the great friendliness to ask me to serve as helper and “critic” in the publication of his mathematical-physical book. The years of working together with this good, outstanding man will always remain unforgettable to me.

Although since 1958 I no longer give lectures, I have continued my research insofar as my strength allowed, and I continue to be associated with the group directed by Morris Kline.

…of the College Royal Français, which at that time was under the directorship Fritz Reiche; Albert Einstein; Fritz Houtermans; Alvin S. Johnson; Hartmut

* Reiche’s memory evidently failed him here. The only time Einstein spoke in Salzburg in the period 1909–1911 was when he delivered his lecture,”Über die Entwickelung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung” (ref. 5), there at the 81st meeting of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte on September 21, 1909. Vol. 7 (2005) Fritz Reiche and the Emergency Committee 469

* Reiche is here referring to the discussions following Einstein’s lecture at the 86th meeting of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte in Bad Nauheim, September 23-24, 1920 (ref. 7).Johannes Stark (1874–1957) and Ernst Gehrcke (1878–1960) were bedfellows with Philipp Lenard in their anti-relativistic, anti-Semitic campaign against Einstein, but according to the published discussions only Lenard took part in them. 470 Benjamin Bederson Phys. perspect.

* The Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, originally German Scholars, before the Nazis conquered most of Europe. Records, 1933–45, stored in 199 archival boxes, are deposited in the Manuscripts and Archives Division of the New York Public Library.They were transferred there in June 1946 by virtue of a resolution adopted at the final meeting of the Committee, with an instruction not to release them for 25 years. See the Committee’s website www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/Emergency.Vol. 7 (2005) Fritz Reiche and the Emergency Committee 455

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