Displaced Scholars

Stöhr – Victorius

255.) Stöhr, Richard (1941-1944) St. Michael’s College/ Music

Richard Stöhr (18741967) was an Austrian composer, music author and teacher. / Born in Vienna, he studied composition with Robert Fuchs at the Vienna Conservatory.

After working there as a repetiteur and choral instructor from 1900, he taught music (theory of harmony, counterpoint, form) from 1903 to 1938, being professor from 1915. Among his students were Alois Haba and Hellmut Federhofer.

He emigrated to the US in 1938 and taught at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. His students there included Leonard Bernstein. / He died in Montpelier, Vermont in the United States.

Bibliography – Stöhr, Richard Praktischer Leitfaden der Harmonielehre (Vienna: UE, 1906) / Stöhr, Richard Musikalische Formenlehre (Leipzig, 1911) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_St%C3%B6hr

Richard Stöhr (born Vienna, June 11, 1874; died Montpelier, VT, Dec 11, 1967), Austrian music theorist and composer, who studied with Robert Fuchs at the Vienna Conservatory (= Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst), worked there from 1900, teaching harmony, counterpoint, and form 1904-38, appointed professor in 1915, and included among his pupils Alois Haba and Hellmut Federhofer. He emigrated to the US in 1938 and taught at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia.

His published works include Praktische Leitfaden der Harmonielehre (Vienna: UE, 1906), Musikalische Formenlehre (Leipzig: Kistner & Siegel, 1911), Praktische Leitfaden des Kontrapunkts (Hamburg: Benjamin, 1911), and Praktische Modulationslehre (Leipzig: Kistner & Siegel, 1915), and other works.

No correspondence between Schenker and Stöhr is known to exist. http://mt.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/schenker/profile/person/stohr_richard.html

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256.) Sulzbach, Walter (1934-1945) Claremont Colleges (Ca.) / Economics

Die Zufälligkeit der Nationen und die Inhaltlosigkeit der internationalen Politik. by Walter Sulzbach Duncker & Humblot, 1969 Imperialismus und Nationalbewusstsein. by Walter Sulzbach Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1959 “Capitalistic warmongers,” a modern superstituion by Walter Sulzbach The University of Chicago Press, 1942 German experience with social insurance. by Walter Sulzbach National Industrial Conference Board, 1947 Die Grundlagen der politischen Parteibildung by Walter Sulzbach J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1921 National consciousness. by Walter Sulzbach American council on public affairs, 1943 German experience with social insurance. by Walter Sulzbach National Industrial Conference Board, 947 “Capitalistic warmongers” by Walter Sulzbach University of Chicago Press, 1942 National consciousness by Walter Sulzbach American Council on Public Affairs, 1943 Die zwei Wurzeln und Formen des Judenhasses. by Walter Sulzbach W. Kohlhammer, 1959

“Her husband, Walter E. Sulzbach died on April 11, 1986. Mrs. Sulzbach was a supervisor for the former New York Telephone Company in Buffalo and Lockport …” http://www.akronbugle.com/story.php?sectionid=8&storyid=195&editionid=88 und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der – Beitrag zu Frankfurt … “… Fritz Neumark, Franz Oppenheimer, Friedrich Pollock, Karl Pribram, Gottfried Salomon-Delatour, Wilhelm Sturmfels, Walter Sulzbach, Heinrich Voelcker …” http://www.ffmhist.de/ffm33-45/portal01/mitte.php?transfer=t_hm_uniwisosaeuberung * “For example, the German economist Walter Eucken explained that antimonopoly …. spending initiated a new phase of economic growth after World War II. …. in providing his friend Walter Sulzbach with a job at NICB in 1946 or 1947; …” mises.org/story/2732“Featherstone Park Camp in Northumberland, had met their former Interpreter Officer, Captain Herbert Sulzbach, and had decided to form an association whose aim was to improve relations between the German and British peoples. Sulzbach, a German-Jewish refugee who had lived in London since 1937 and later worked in the cultural department of the West German embassy, was…” * “Council for Assisting Refugee Academics see Society for the Protection of …… Herbert S Sultan; Walter Sulzbach; Giorgio Tagliacozzo; Piero G Treves …” http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/modern/spsl/spsl.html

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257.) Szász, Otto (1933-1941, 1944) U of Cincinnati / Mathematics

See full size image Otto Szász, 1884-1952 * Otto Szász was born in Alsoszucs, Hungary to a farm family and was educated at the University of Budapest and the Institute of Technology of Budapest. According to the custom of the time, during his undergraduate years he also spent time at another leading European university, in his case the University of Göttingen in 1907-08. At Göttingen he attended mathematics lectures by Klein, Hilbert, Minkowski, Toeplitz and Herglotz and physics lectures by Voigt and Prandtl. Szász received his Ph.D., working under the supervision of Leopold Fejér, from the University of Budapest in 1911 and was appointed a privatdozent the same year. From 1911 to 1914 he continued postdoctoral studies at the University of Munich, the University of Paris and the University of Göttingen. In 1914 he moved to the University of Frankfurt as a privatdozent and was appointed Professor in 1920. He was forced from his chair by the Nazis in 1933 and immigrated to the United States taking temporary posts at MIT (arranged by Norbert Wiener, see [NW]) and Brown University. In 1936 he was appointed, through the efforts of Wiener and I.A. Barnett, to the faculty of the University of Cincinnati. In his autobiography [NW] Wiener relates that “He had a career of some twenty years in America, where he ultimately received recognition more appropriate to his really very considerable talents than he found in Germany.”

Szász was an important figure in classical analysis and by all accounts a well-liked person (Wiener called him “a lovable little Hungarian”). He served on the editorial board of the American Journal of Mathematics and his research contributed to the theory of Fourier series, summability theory, continued fractions and approximation theory. He was awarded the Julius König Prize of the Hungarian Mathematical and Physical Society in 1939 and a selection of his collected works [DL] (running nearly 1500 pages) was published by the University of Cincinnati in 1955. Szász died of a heart attack in 1952 while summering with his wife at her mother’s estate in Montreux, Switzerland. He is buried in Vevay, Switzerland.

REFERENCES [DL] H.D. Lipsich (Ed.), Collected Works of Otto Szász, University of Cincinnati, 1955. / [NW] N. Wiener, I am a Mathematician, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1956. / [GS] G. Szegö, “Otto Szász”, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 60(1954), 261- 263. Article by Charles Groetsch, University of Cincinnati http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Mathematicians/Szasz.html * http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/math/history/page54112.html

Szasz “Biography of Otto Szász (1884-1952) … Otto Szász studied at the University of Budapest but he went from there to Göttingen, Munich and Paris where he …” info.math.nankai.edu.cn/mirror/www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Szasz.htmlThe Committee on Economic Security, appointed by the United States Government to study phases of social insurance, has announced that its subcommittee on actuarial questions will be constituted as follows: Professor J. W. Glover, of the University of Michigan, chairman; President M. A. Linton, of the Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company, Professor H. L. Rietz, of the University of Iowa, and Professor A. L. Mowbray, of the University of California. This committee will advise the Administration on means of financing a program of social insurance.

In addition to the members of the editorial board of the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, the following persons have assisted the editors by refereeing papers offered for publication in the volume for 1934: H. R. Brahana, Alonzo Church, A. B. Coble, L. E. Dickson, E. L. Dodd, L. P. Eisenhart, G. C. Evans, T. H. Hildebrandt, T. R. Hollcroft, Eberhard Hopf, R. E. Langer, Stanislaw Saks, P. A. Smith, Virgil Snyder, Otto Szâsz, T. Y. Thomas. The editors appreciate this assistance and desire to give it this public recognition. http://www.ams.org/bull/1935-41-01/S0002-9904-1935-06030-6/S0002-9904-1935-06030-6.pdf * http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Sz%C3%A1sz

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258.) Szegö, Gabriel (1933-1944) Stanford / Mathematics

 Gábor Szegö [ http://www.mscs.dal.ca/~dilcher/collwks.html ]

Born: 20 Jan 1895 in Kunhegyes, Hungary Died: 7 Aug 1985 in Palo Alto, California USAGábor Szegö was born in Kunhegyes, a small town in Hungary about 120 km southeast of Budapest. His undergraduate studies were undertaken in Budapest.

After attending university in Budapest, Szegö went to Berlin where he studied under, among others, Frobenius, Schwarz, Knopp and Schottky, and Göttingen where he studied with Hilbert, Edmund Landau and Haar. He returned to Hungary where he worked under Féjer and Kurschak. He acted as a coach to the young von Neumann.

He enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian cavalry in the First World War and spent some time in the Air force where he met von Mises.

In 1921 he moved to Berlin where he became a friend of Schur and worked with von Mises and Schmidt. He cooperated with Pólya in bringing out a joint Problem Book: Aufgaben und Lehrsätze aus der Analysis, vols I and II (Problems and Theorems in Analysis ) (1925) which has since gone through many editions and which has had an enormous impact on later generations of mathematicians. Pólya wrote of their collaboration (see [Notices Amer. Math. Soc. 42 (6) (1995) – http://www.ams.org/notices/199506/szego.pdf “It was a wonderful time; we worked with enthusiasm and concentration. We had similar backgrounds. We were both influenced, like all young Hungarian mathematicians of that time, by Lipót Fejér. We were both readers of the same well-directed Hungarian Mathematical Journal for high school students that stressed problem solving. We were interested in the same kinds of questions, in the same topics; but one of us knew more about one topic, and the other more about some other topic. It was a fine collaboration. The book Aufgaben und Lehrsätze aus der Analysis, the result of our cooperation, is my best work and also the best work of Gábor Szegö.

In 1926 he moved to Königsberg to succeed Knopp as professor. He stayed there until 1934 when the pressure on him as a Jew forced him to move to the USA where he found a post at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. In 1938 he moved to Stanford where he remained for the rest of his working life.

Szegö’s most important work was in the area of extremal problems and Toeplitz matrices. This work led him to introduce the notion of the Szegö reproducing kernel. From these beginnings he moved to prove a number of limit theorems, now known as the Szegö limit theorem, the strong Szegö limit theorem and Szegö’s orthogonal polynomials and on the unit circle.

He produced over 130 research articles as well as several influential books. In addition to the books he wrote with Pólya, described above, Szegö wrote research monographs on his own work. Orthogonal Ploynomials appeared in 1939 and was published by the American Mathematical Society. It has proved highly successful, running to four editions and many reprints over the years. In a collaboration with Ulf Grenander, Szegö wrote Toeplitz forms and their applications which was published in 1958.

“… totally destroyed like practically everything else in Berlin during WWII, ….. Otto Schilling, Carl L.Siegel, Otto Szasz, Gabriel Szego, Olga Taussky, …” at.yorku.ca/t/o/p/c/71.htm * “Gabor (Gabriel) Szego (1895-1985) was a student of Lipot Fejer, took special care of Janos (John von) Neumann while he was a high school student. …” www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Search/historysearch.cgi?SUGGESTION=Von+Neumann&CONTEXT=1 son? >>> Dr. Gabriel Szego “Dr. Gabriel Szego is an infectious disease specialist and member of the CAMC Ryan White Program’s care team. Since 1966, he has treated hundreds of …” http://www.camcrwp.org/Staff/SzegoGabriel.htm William Feller “… Otto Schilling, Carl L. Siegel, Otto Szasz, Gabriel Szegö, Olga Taussky, Abraham Wald, Stefan Warschawsky, Wolfgang Wasow, Hermann Weyl, Max Zorn. …” http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/feller.html John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern … “… soon wrote to a university tutor, Gabriel Szego, saying that the Lutheran School had a young boy of quite extraordinary talent. …” books.google.com/books?id=OO-_gSRhe-EC&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&dq=%22Gabriel+Szego%22&source=bl&ots=ikympfaMP6&sig=2q1QJ6gTjSdkxPus-yONB3IUT_4&hl=enAll this modernism, cultural import, and obsession with innovation produced numerous difficulties. «Material problems, lodging miseries, an introduction to life’s sad chapter called ‘wie man Professor wird,’ etc. would easily explain, even in your young age, your passing depression», said Professor Lipót Fejér trying to cheer up his student Gábor Szego, who was on his way to becoming a professor of mathematics in Berlin.

Professor Lipót Fejér asked fellow mathematician Gábor Szego in Berlin in early 1922: «What does little Johnny Neumann do? Please let me know what impact do you notice so far of his Berlin stay»

As a very young man, the celebrated Lipót Fejér spent the academic year 1899-1900 in Berlin where he attended the famous seminar of Hermann Amandus Schwarz. In 1902-1903, he studied in Göttingen and in subsequent years returned to both universities. A gifted student of Fejér, Gábor Szego also followed his path and went to study in pre-War Berlin, Göttingen and Vienna, and later became professor of mathematics at Stanford.
http://www.storicamente.org/05_studi_ricerche/02frank.htm

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259.) Tarski, Alfred (1939-1944) Berkeley / Mathematics & Logic

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Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a Polish logician and mathematician. Educated in the Warsaw School of Mathematics and philosophy, he emigrated to the USA in 1939, and taught and did research in mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1942 until his death.

A prolific author best known for his work on model theory, metamathematics, and algebraic logic, he also contributed to abstract algebra, topology, geometry, measure theory, mathematical logic, set theory, and analytic philosophy.

He is regarded as one of the four greatest logicians of all time, perhaps matched only by Aristotle, Kurt Gödel, and Gottlob Frege. His biographers Anita and Solomon Feferman state that, “Along with his contemporary, Kurt Gödel, he changed the face of logic in the twentieth century, especially through his work on the concept of truth and the theory of models.”  

Alfred Tarski was born Alfred Teitelbaum (Polish spelling: “Tajtelbaum”), to parents who were Polish Jews in comfortable circumstances. He first manifested his mathematical abilities while in secondary school, at Warsaw’s Szkoła Mazowiecka. / Nevertheless, he entered the University of Warsaw in 1918 intending to study biology.

After Poland regained independence in 1918, Warsaw University came under the leadership of Jan Łukasiewicz, Stanisław Leśniewski and Wacław Sierpiński and quickly became a world leading research institution in logic, foundational mathematics, and the philosophy of mathematics. Leśniewski recognized Tarski’s potential as a mathematician and persuaded him to abandon biology.[citation needed] Henceforth Tarski attended courses taught by Łukasiewicz, Sierpiński, Stefan Mazurkiewicz and Tadeusz Kotarbiński, and became the only person ever to complete a doctorate under Leśniewski’s supervision. Tarski and Leśniewski soon grew cool to each other. However, in later life, Tarski reserved his warmest praise for Kotarbiński, as was mutual.

In 1923, Alfred Teitelbaum and his brother Wacław changed their surname to “Tarski”, a name they invented because it sounded more Polish, was simple to spell and pronounce, and seemed unused. (Years later, Alfred met another Alfred Tarski in northern California.) The Tarski brothers also converted to Roman Catholicism, Poland’s dominant religion. Alfred did so even though he was an avowed atheist. Tarski was a Polish nationalist who saw himself as a Pole and wished to be fully accepted as such. In America, he spoke Polish at home. With a non-Jewish name and as a nominal Catholic he hoped to be more successful in future applications for a university position in Poland since anti-semitic resentments were strong in Polish academia at the time.[citation needed]

In 1929 Tarski married a fellow teacher Maria Witkowska, a Pole of Catholic ancestry. She had worked as a courier for the army during Poland’s fight for independence. They had two children, a son Jan who became a physicist, and a daughter Ina who married the mathematician Andrzej Ehrenfeucht.

After becoming the youngest person ever to complete a doctorate at Warsaw University, Tarski taught logic at the Polish Pedagogical Institute, mathematics and logic at the University, and served as Łukasiewicz’s assistant. Because these positions were poorly paid, Tarski also taught mathematics at a Warsaw secondary school; before World War II, it was not uncommon for European intellectuals of research caliber to teach high school. Hence between 1923 and his departure for the United States in 1939, Tarski not only wrote several textbooks and many papers, a number of them ground-breaking, but also did so while supporting himself primarily by teaching high-school mathematics. Tarski applied for a chair of philosophy at Lwów University, but on Bertrand Russell‘s recommendation it was awarded to Leon Chwistek. In 1937 Tarski applied for a chair at Poznań University; but, the chair was abolished.

In 1930, Tarski visited the University of Vienna, lectured to Karl Menger‘s colloquium, and met Kurt Gödel. Thanks to a fellowship, he was able to return to Vienna during the first half of 1935 to work with Menger’s research group. From Vienna he travelled to Paris to present his ideas on truth at the first meeting of the Unity of Science movement, an outgrowth of the Vienna Circle. Tarski’s ties to this movement saved his life, because they resulted in his being invited to address the Unity of Science Congress held in September 1939 at Harvard University. Thus he left Poland in August 1939, on the last ship to sail from Poland for the United States before the German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of World War II. Tarski left reluctantly, because Leśniewski had died a few months before, creating a vacancy which Tarski hoped to fill. He was so oblivious to the Nazi threat that he left his wife and children in Warsaw; he did not see them again until 1946. During the war, nearly all his extended family died at the hands of the German occupying authorities.

Once in the United States, Tarski held a number of temporary teaching and research positions: Harvard University (1939), City College of New York (1940), and thanks to a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1942), where he again met Gödel. Tarski became an American citizen in 1945. In 1942, Tarski joined the Mathematics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, where he spent the rest of his career. Although emeritus from 1968, he taught until 1973 and supervised Ph.D. candidates until his death. [read more at:] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Tarski

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260.) Tedesco, Paul (1938-1941, 1944) Inst. Advanced Study / Philology

IRANIAN STUDIES IN GERMAN: PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v10f5/v10f515c.html

“Sanskrit and Comparative Philology. Paul Tedesco died December 17, 1980, in New Haven. Schmitt. 2003–2004 offers an account of Tedesco’s biography together …” * “He calls Paul Tedesco ‘the person who immediately became my guru at Yale” * “Paul Tedesco has made many notable contributions here, but he also is willing to operate with a methodology in which the Dravidian languages do not exist …” …at New School for Social Research: (1942-1945)

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261.) Tillich, Paul (1933-1944) Union Theological Seminary (NYC) / Philosophy

 Paul Johannes Tillich (1886-1965), German-American Protestant theologian and philosopher, ranks as one of the most important and influential theologians of the 20th century. He explored the meaning of Christian faith in relation to the questions raised by philosophical analysis of human existence.

Together with thinkers such as Karl Barth and Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich helped revolutionize Protestant theology. All three were influenced by the recovery of neglected insights in the Bible, the discovery of existentialism through the writings of Søren Kierkegaard, and the crisis in Western culture wrought by World War I.

Tillich was born on Aug. 20, 1886, in Starzeddel, Prussia, the son of Johannes Tillich, a Lutheran minister. Paul studied at the universities of Berlin (1904-1905, 1908), Tübingen (1905), Halle (1905-1907), and Breslau. He received his doctorate from Breslau (1911) and the licentiate of theology from Halle (1912).

German Career – Ordained a minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1912, Tillich served as a chaplain in the German army throughout World War I. During the years between the war and the coming to power of the Nazis in 1933, he was actively involved in the religious-socialist movement in Germany along with others such as Martin Buber. The religious socialists rejected the traditional otherworldliness and individualism of the dominant forms of Christianity and joined in the German socialist struggle for wider justice and social opportunity; but they sharply criticized Marxism and other purely secular forms of socialism for their utopian illusions and purely technocratic approach to human problems.

Tillich taught theology at the University of Berlin (1919-1924) and then was appointed professor of theology at the University of Marburg. That same year he married Hannah Werner; they had a son and a daughter. He next taught theology at the universities of Dresden (1925-1929) and Leipzig (1928-1929) and philosophy at the University of Frankfurt am Main (1929-1933). At Frankfurt, he produced his chief German writings. The best known of these, translated into English as The Religious Situation (1932), sets forth Tillich’s central concept of religion as the universal dimension of “ultimate concern” in all human life and culture and interprets the transformations taking place in 20th-century European politics, arts, and thought in light of this concept.

American Career – With the rise of Hitler, Tillich became an outspoken opponent of Nazism, and in 1933 he was dismissed from his position at Frankfurt. He emigrated to the United States, invited by the distinguished theologian Reinhold Niebuhr to teach at Union Theological Seminary in New York City, where Tillich remained until 1955.

In The Interpretation of History (1936) Tillich developed the classical Greek idea of kairos (the right time), used in the New Testament to describe the historic disclosure of God in Christ. Prominent in The Protestant Era (1948), a collection of his articles exploring aspects of modern history from a theological perspective, is the key term, “the Protestant principle” – a necessary critical principle for both living religion and theological reflection which protests against identifying anything finite with the infinite God.

Tillich’s first collection of sermons, The Shaking of the Foundations (1948), was followed by The New Being (1955) and The Eternal Now (1963). Many people have found his sermons the most helpful way to enter his thought, here fleshed out concretely in biblical interpretation and in application to contemporary life.

Tillich was profoundly influenced by, and contributed to, depth psychology. The Courage To Be (1952) perhaps best embodies his application of psychological insights to a theological description of man with his analysis of the nature of anxiety. He turned his attention to basic problems of Christian ethics in Love, Power and Justice (1954), and in Morality and Beyond (1963).

His Chief Work – Systematic Theology (vol. 1, 1951; vol. 2, 1957; vol. 3, 1963) is Tillich’s chief work and the most complete exposition of his theology. Its structure is based upon his “method of correlation, ” which “explains the contents of the Christian faith through existential questions and theological answers in mutual interdependence.” In the first volume he sets forth in greatest detail his important and much-debated interpretation of God, not as a being among beings but as Being-itself, the “ground and power of being” in everything that exists.

Tillich’s career ended with distinguished professorships at Harvard (1955-1962) and the University of Chicago (1962-1965), where he taught to overflowing classrooms. Among his books published during this period or posthumously, the following should be noted: Biblical Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality (1955), Dynamics of Faith (1957), Theology of Culture (1959), Christianity and the Encounter of World Religions (1963), Perspectives on 19th and 20th Century Protestant Thought (1967), A History of Christian Thought (1968), and What is Religion? (1969). In addition, he wrote literally hundreds of articles for religious and secular periodicals.

In 1940 Tillich had become an American citizen. Until the end of World War II he remained politically active, participating in the religious-socialist movement in the United States and serving as chairman of the Council for a Democratic Germany. He was chairman of the Self-help for Émigrés from Central Europe and was generally active in refugee work. He was frequently called upon to contribute to the national and international ecumenical movement. He received many honorary doctorates and awards. Perhaps none gave him deeper pleasure than those bestowed by his homeland, Germany, in the years after the war.

A man of average height and build, with a shock of white hair in his later years, Tillich was reserved but keenly and warmly interested in other persons. His profound love of nature manifested itself in his religious outlook. In the midst of a still-active career, he died in Chicago on Oct. 22, 1965. With his broad humanistic interests and approach to Christianity, he communicated to many in modern secular culture a renewed appreciation of religion as man’s universal “ultimate concern, ” manifested in all human activities.

Further Reading – Tillich’s most extended autobiographical account is On the Boundary (1966). A brief, clearly written introduction to his life and thought is Guyton B. Hammond, The Power of Self-transcendence: An Introduction to the Philosophical Theology of Paul Tillich (1966). Also brief is David Hopper, Tillich: A Theological Portrait (1967), which combines biography with a scholarly critique of Tillich’s Systematic Theology. More extensive and technical studies include J. Heywood Thomas, Paul Tillich (1963), and Alexander J. McKelway, The Systematic Theology of Paul Tillich (1964). See also Carl J. Armbraster, The Vision of Paul Tillich (1967). Noted specialists in various fields assess Tillich’s life and work in an anthology of essays, The Intellectual Legacy of Paul Tillich, edited by James R. Lyons (1969); and his place in history is considered in Alvin C. Porteous, Prophetic Voices in Contemporary Theology (1966).

Additional Sources – Newport, John P., Paul Tillich, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991, 1984. / Pauck, Wilhelm, Paul Tillich, his life & thought, San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. / Ratschow, Carl Heinz, Paul Tillich, Iowa City, Iowa (Gilmore Hall, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242): North American Paul Tillich Society, 1980. / Taylor, Mark Kline, Paul Tillich: theologian of the boundaries, London; San Francisco, CA: Collins, 1987. / Tillich, Hannah, From place to place: travels with Paul Tillich, travels without Paul Tillich, New York: Stein and Day, 1976. http://www.ffmhist.de/ffm33-45/portal01/portal01.php?ziel=t_hm_uniphilfaksaeuberung

 Paul Johannes Tillich (18861965) was a GermanAmerican theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. Tillich was, along with his contemporaries Rudolf Bultmann (Germany), Karl Barth (Switzerland), and Reinhold Niebuhr (United States), one of the four most influential Protestant theologians of the 20th century. Among the general populace, he is best known for his works The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957), which introduced issues of theology and modern culture to a general readership. Theologically, he is best known for his major three-volume work Systematic Theology (1951–63), in which he developed his “method of correlation”: an approach of exploring the symbols of Christian revelation as answers to the problems of human existence raised by contemporary existential philosophical analysis

Paul Tillich’s life has been chronicled in a biography, a partially biographical book (Hopper, 1968), an autobiographical sketch (in On the Boundary), and two autobiographical essays (in Kegley and My Search for Absolutes).

Tillich was born on August 20, 1886, in the small village of Starzeddel in the province of Brandenburg in eastern Germany. He was the oldest of three children, with two sisters: Johanna (b. 1888, d. 1920) and Elisabeth (b. 1893). Tillich’s Prussian father was a conservative Lutheran pastor of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia’s older Provinces; his mother was from the Rhineland and was more liberal. When Tillich was four, his father became superintendent of a diocese in Schönfliess, a town of three thousand, where Tillich began elementary school. In 1898, Tillich was sent to Königsberg to begin gymnasium. At Königsberg, he lived in a boarding house and experienced loneliness that he sought to overcome by reading the Bible. Simultaneously, however, he was exposed to humanistic ideas at school.

In 1900, Tillich’s father was transferred to Berlin, Tillich switching in 1901 to a Berlin school, from which he graduated in 1904. Before his graduation, however, his mother died of cancer in September 1903, when Tillich was 17. Tillich attended several universities—the University of Berlin beginning in 1904, the University of Tübingen in 1905, and the University of Halle in 1905-07. He received his Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Breslau in 1911 and his Licentiate of Theology degree at the University of Halle in 1912. During his time at university, he became a member of the Wingolf.

That same year, 1912, Tillich was ordained as a Lutheran minister in the province of Brandenburg. In September 1914 he married Margarethe (“Grethi”) Wever, and in October he joined the German army as a chaplain. Grethi deserted Tillich in 1919 after an affair that produced a child not fathered by Tillich; the two then divorced. Tillich’s academic career began after the war; he became a Privadozent of Theology at the University of Berlin, a post he held from 1919 to 1924. On his return from the war he had met Hannah Werner Gottswchow, then married and pregnant. In March 1924 they married; it was the second marriage for both.

During 1924-25 he was a Professor of Theology at the University of Marburg, where he began to develop his systematic theology, teaching a course on it during the last of his three terms. From 1925 until 1929, Tillich was a Professor of Theology at the University of Dresden and the University of Leipzig. He held the same post at the University of Frankfurt during 1929-33.

While at Frankfurt, Tillich gave public lectures and speeches throughout Germany that brought him into conflict with the Nazi movement. When Hitler became German Chancellor in 1933, Tillich was dismissed from his position. Reinhold Niebuhr visited Germany in the summer of 1933 and, already impressed with Tillich’s writings, contacted Tillich upon learning of Tillich’s dismissal. Niebuhr urged Tillich to join the faculty at New York City’s Union Theological Seminary; Tillich accepted.

At the age of 47, Tillich moved with his family to America. This meant learning English, the language in which Tillich would eventually publish works such as the Systematic Theology. From 1933 until 1955 he taught at Union, where he began as a Visiting Professor of Philosophy of Religion. During 1933-34 he was also a Visiting Lecturer in Philosophy at Columbia University. Tillich acquired tenure at Union in 1937, and in 1940 he was promoted to Professor of Philosophical Theology and became an American citizen.

At the Union Theological Seminary, Tillich earned his reputation, publishing a series of books that outlined his particular synthesis of Protestant Christian theology and existential philosophy. He published On the Boundary in 1936; The Protestant Era, a collection of his essays, in 1948; and The Shaking of the Foundations, the first of three volumes of his sermons, also in 1948. His collections of sermons would give Tillich a broader audience than he had yet experienced. His most heralded achievements though, were the 1951 publication of volume one of Systematic Theology which brought Tillich academic acclaim, and the 1952 publication of The Courage to Be. The first volume of the systematic theology series prompted an invitation to give the prestigious Gifford lectures during 1953–54 at the University of Aberdeen. The latter book, called “his masterpiece” in the Pauks’s biography of Tillich (p. 225), was based on his 1950 Dwight H. Terry Lectureship and reached a wide general readership.

These works led to an appointment at the Harvard Divinity School in 1955, where he became one of the University’s five University Professors – the five highest ranking professors at Harvard. Tillich’s Harvard career lasted until 1962. During this period he published volume 2 of Systematic Theology and also published the popular book Dynamics of Faith (1957).

In 1962, Tillich moved to the University of Chicago, where he was a Professor of Theology until his death in Chicago in 1965. Volume 3 of Systematic Theology was published in 1963. In 1964 Tillich became the first theologian to be honored in Kegley and Bretall’s Library of Living Theology. They wrote: “The adjective ‘great,’ in our opinion, can be applied to very few thinkers of our time, but Tillich, we are far from alone in believing, stands unquestionably amongst these few.” (Kegley and Bretall, 1964, pp. ix-x) A widely quoted critical assessment of his importance was Georgia Harkness‘ comment, “What Whitehead was to American philosophy, Tillich has been to American theology.”

Tillich died on October 22, 1965, ten days after experiencing a heart attack. In 1966 his ashes were interred in the Paul Tillich Park in New Harmony, Indiana. [more at:] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Tillich

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262.) Tomšic, Dinko (1941-1944) Indiana U / Sociology

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263.) Torczyner, Harry (1933-1943) Hebrew U / Philology

Harry Torczyner (1910-1998) New York

New York lawyer and poet who befriended the painter René Magritte

Wolfgang Saxon, “Harry Torczyner, 87, Lawyer, Writer and Promoter of Artists” (obituary), New York Times (April 13, 1998):

Harry Torczyner, an international lawyer, art collector and writer who championed the causes of Israel and his native Belgium, died on March 26 at Beth Israel Hospital in Manhattan. He was 87.

Through museum and gallery exhibits Mr. Torczyner helped introduce a wider American public to the work of Beglian artists, especially the Surrealist painter Rene Magritte, to whom he was a friend and advisor. He wrote several books and articles ab out the artist, arranged for showings and donated some of Magritte’s work to the Museum of Modern Art in New York (“L’Éternité” and “La Perspective”) and to the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

A Native of Antwerp, Mr. Torczyner received his higher education at the University of Heidelberg and Columbia University School of Law. He practiced law in Belgium before fleeig the Nazis and coming to the United States via France, Spain and Cuba. Besides English, he spoke French, Dutch, German and Spanish.

During World War II he workd for the Office of War Information. He set up his practice in New York in 1946, dealing with international and foreign law, copyright law and general practice.

He served as counsel to American diamond dealers like Harry Winston Inc., to the Diamond Trade and Precious Stone Association, and to the World Federation of Diamond Bourses, and was a director of the Belgian Chamber of Commerce in the United States. . . .

Mr. Torczyner is survived by his wife, Marcelle Siva Torczyner; two daughters, Evelyn Musher Schechter of Manhattan and Denise Wiseman of Caper, Wyo.; a brother, Jacque, of Manhattan; five grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.

The entry on Torczner in the Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature 812-813 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2nd ed., 1980) (Jea-Albert Bédé & William B. Edgerton eds.) notes that: “In the 1960s, with Lous Scutenaire, Marcel Lecomte, André Pieyre De Mandiargues, and René Magritte, among others, Torczyner contributed to the literary and artistic journal Rhétorique. Moreover, various poems of his have appeared in the periodical Le Moi and in Spanish in Comentario. http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~jelkins/lp-2001/torczyner.html

Journeyman in Jerusalem: Memories and Letters, 1933-1947 “Professor Harry Torczyner My other minor advisor, Professor Harry Torczyner ( later Naphtali Herz Tur-Sinai, 1886-1973), was a very different person. …” books.google.com/books?id=IrF7ZYWMO8MC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=Harry+Torczyner&source=bl&ots=IMcOeh4U86&sig=A8LY-tm40ui5t3VUv6tc3o6hm2k&hl=en

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264.) Treitel, Otto (1940-1945) Fisk U (Nashville) / Botany

Aging of Plant Tissue and Stress-Strain Curves, Modulus of Elasticity and Specific Gravity of Plant Tissues OTTO TREITEL Nashville, Tennessee INTRODUCTION …” * “Otto Treitel, 1943-46, Mathematics, Physics. Hampton Institute (now University), Hampton, VA.” * OTTO TREITEL. Nashville, Tennessee. INTRODUCTION. In two recent papers the stress-strain curves of different elastic plant tissues were investigated, …” * Elasticity, plasticity, and compression for cylindrical plant tissues, and fine structure of their cell walls. Authors: O TREITEL …” http://www.nextbio.com/b/search/author/O%20TREITEL

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265.) Victorius, Curt (1940-1944) Guilford College (S.C.) / Economics

JSTOR: Hermann Heinrich Gossen, 1810-1858: Ein Wegbereiter der … “J. Curt Victorius. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, 194-195. Oct., 1953. Hermann Heinrich Gossen, 1810-1858: Ein Wegbereiter der modernen …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-4038(195310)20%3A2%3C194%3AHHG1EW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q JSTOR: The International Economy: Its Structure and Operation “J. Curt Victorius. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, 485-486. Apr., 1951. The International Economy: Its Structure and Operation. …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-4038(195104)17%3A4%3C485%3ATIEISA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2 Articles Collection – Central Bank of Republic of Indonesia “James M. Buchanan; J. Curt Victorius; Howard R. Bowen. Discussion. John P. Troxell; Philip Taft. Discussion. Allan M. Cartter; Selma F. Goldsmith; …” http://www.bi.go.id/web/en/Tentang+BI/Perpustakaan/Koleksi+Artikel/default.aspx?disp=Volume%2044%20Thn%201954%20No%2002&idjl=1884 Koleksi Artikel – Bank Sentral Republik Indonesia “Discussion. James M. Buchanan; J. Curt Victorius; Howard R. Bowen. 1/19/2006. COPYRIGHT © 2008 THE BANK OF INDONESIA All Rights RESERVED.” http://www.bi.go.id/biweb/Templates/Tentang%20BI/Perpustakaan/Artikel_ID.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRORIGINALURL=%2Fweb%2Fid%2FTentang%2BBI%2FPerpustakaan%2FKoleksi%2BArtikel%2Fdefault.aspx%3Fiddl%3D4959&NRNODEGUID=%7B455E92D2-D438-4EBA-BC64-4E05C5113C41%7D&NRCACHEHINT=Guest&iddl=27274 Full text of “Bericht” “Stadtrath Commerzienratb Curt Victorius, Graudenz. 0. Wassermann. Fabrikbesitzer I. Weinberg. Max Weiss. Rabbiner Dr. S. Weisse. Wilhelm Weisstein. …” http://www.archive.org/stream/berichtzwanzigster20berluoft/berichtzwanzigster20berluoft_djvu.txt

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