Displaced Scholars

Winter – Zygmund

277.) Winter, Ernst Karl (1938-1944) 210 Hickory Ave., Tenafly, NJ / Government Service

NSSR :: About Us :: 75th Anniversary :: The University in Exile “Ernst Karl Winter Austria / sociology, political science. Kurt Wohl Germany / chemistry. Eva Wunderlich Germany / comparative literature …” http://www.newschool.edu/nssr/subpage.aspx?id=28792 than the Reich constitution, provided a workable model for the … “7, 1933, a little-known Austrian historian and sociologist, Ernst Karl Winter, sent two open letters to Wilhelm Miklas, the president of the tottering …” links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2801(198809)60%3A3%3C607%3AEKZOF1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848-1938 “His dualism in anthropology was renewed by the Catholic sociologist Ernst Karl Winter (1895-1959), who insisted that society and theology constitute …” books.google.com/books?id=oDOdeRY2MHYC&pg=PA280&lpg=PA280&dq=%22Ernst+Karl+Winter%22&source=bl&ots=L4chmYAVxL&sig=qhNWx7mXAMzCNMOOzrQE1nECgp4&hl=en * “… an important group of followers like Karl Lugmayer , Irene Harand , Pater Cyrill Fischer, Ernst Karl Winter (Sociologist and Vice-mayor of Vienna, …” wapedia.mobi/en/Karl_Freiherr_von_Vogelsang http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Karl_Winter


278.) Wischnitzer-Bernstein, Rachel (1940-1945) American Academy for Jewish Research (NYC) / History of Art

Rachel Wischnitzer (1885–1989) was a pioneer in the fields of Jewish art history and synagogue architecture. Her wide-ranging scholarship included books, articles, book reviews, and exhibition catalogs on ancient, medieval, and modern Jewish art. / Rachel Bernstein Wischnitzer was born in Minsk, Russia, on April 14, 1885, to Vladimir and Sophie (Halpern) Bernstein. Her family, while acculturated, celebrated Jewish holidays. They lived in comfortable circumstances. She had one younger brother. Her father was an insurance agent and supported her while she pursued her studies. She graduated from high school in Warsaw in 1902, and studied art at the University of Heidelberg in 1902–1903, and the University of Munich in 1910–1911. She spent 1903 to 1905 at the School of Architecture at the Brussels Royal Academy, then transferred to the École Spéciale d’Architecture in Paris and received an architect’s diploma in 1907, one of the first three women in Europe to attain that degree.

She married Mark Wischnitzer, a historian, in St. Petersburg in 1912. They had one child, Leonard, born in 1924. In 1920, the couple moved to London, where she was one of the first scholars to work on illuminated Hebrew manuscripts at the British Museum, London, and at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. This work led to later publications in the field. / The Wischnitzers moved to Berlin in 1921. Friends helped them found Rimon [Hebrew] and Milgroim [Yiddish], companion journals that each included a literary and art section. Rachel Wischnitzer was art editor of the short-lived (1922–1924) but beautiful periodicals. While in Berlin, she was also the art and architecture editor of the Encyclopedia Judaica (Berlin) from 1928 to 1934 and served the Jewish Museum in various capacities, including a curatorial one, from 1928 to 1938. A major achievement during this period was the publication of her first book, Symbole und Gestalten der Jüdischen Kunst [Symbols and forms of Jewish art] (1935).

The Wischnitzer family left Nazi Germany in the spring of 1938 and resided in Paris temporarily, where Rachel Wischnitzer took a course with Comte Robert du Mesnil du Buisson, excavator of the Dura-Europos synagogue (built a.d. 244–245) in Syria, an educational experience that significantly influenced the rest of her career. / Upon moving to New York in 1940, she resumed her formal studies at New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts and completed her M.A. in 1944. At the same time, she was a research fellow at the American Academy for Jewish Research. Her master’s thesis was published in 1948 as The Messianic Theme in the Paintings of the Dura Synagogue. / Her study of the synagogue continued with her book Synagogue Architecture in the United States, published in 1955, the year her husband died. The following year, at age seventy-one, she established the fine arts department at the Stern College For Women in New York, and taught there until her retirement in 1968. The Architecture of the European Synagogue, her final book-length work, was published in 1964.

Yeshiva University awarded her an honorary doctorate of humane letters at its commencement in 1968, and the Journal of Jewish Art dedicated an issue to her in 1979. This special issue included an autobiography and a bibliography of Wischnitzer’s writings on both Jewish and general art, with a total of 344 entries. A later publication was an article on Picasso’s Guernica that appeared in 1985, the centenary of her birth. She died four years later, at age 104. Her son, Leonard James Winchester, an engineer, survived her. / Rachel Bernstein Wischnitzer was a seminal figure in the development of a new scholarly discipline. The breadth of her contributions to the history of Jewish art and architecture is exemplified in her lifelong dedication to her work as editor, author, educator, lecturer, curator, and scholar.” — Jewish Women’s Archive, by Shulamith Z. Berger http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/wischnitzer-rachel


279.) Wittfogel, Karl August (1934-1944) Library, Columbia U / History of Chinese Institutions and Society

 Karl August Wittfogel (18961988) was a German-American historian and sinologist. He was a Marxist and an active communist party member, but after the Second World War an equally fierce Anticommunist. / Wittfogel was born in Woltersdorf, Province of Hanover. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Frankfurt in 1928. He joined the Communist Party of Germany in 1920 and in the 1920s and early 30s, he was an active member of the party. Between 1925 and 1933 he was a member of the Institute for Social Research, better known as the Frankfurt School. During this period he was a vocal critic of the German Nazi Party. When Hitler came to power in 1933, he decided to leave Germany. Before he could leave, however, he was arrested and interned in a concentration camp, but was released following an international outcry. He moved to the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1939. There he held academic positions at Columbia University and at the University of Washington where he taught until his retirement in 1966.

Wittfogel entered Leipzig University in 1914, but studied at several German universities, concentrating on study of China, but studying other subjects too, including history, economics, and psychology. In his youth Wittfogel wrote a number of plays: Rote Soldaten (Red Soldiers), Der Mann der eine Idee hat (The Man Who Has an Idea), ‘Die Mutter, Der Fluchtling (The Mother, The Refugee), and Wer ist der Dummste? (Who is the Biggest Fool?) but declined an offer to become the dramatic producer of the revolutionary Volksbuhn (People’s Stage) in Berlin in order to concentrate on his academic studies. / Wittfogel is best known for his work Oriental Despotism: A comparative Study of Total Power published in 1957. Starting from a Marxist analysis of the ideas of Max Weber on China and India‘s “hydraulic-bureaucratic official-state” and building on Marx’s views of the Asiatic Mode of Production, Wittfogel came up with an analysis of the role of irrigation works in Asia, the bureaucratic structures needed to maintain them and the impact that these had on society. In his view many societies, mainly in Asia, relied heavily on the building of large-scale irrigation works. To do this, the state had to organize forced labor from the population at large. This required a large and complex bureaucracy staffed by competent and literate officials. This structure was uniquely placed to also crush civil society and any other force capable of mobilizing against the state. Such a state would inevitably be despotic, powerful, stable and wealthy.

After arriving in the United States, Wittfogel began to reconsider the nature of Communism and became a strong opponent of the ideology. He came to believe that the socialized economies of the Soviet Union inevitably lead to despotic governments even more oppressive than those of “traditional Asia”. Wittfogel came to consider the Eastern World such as Soviet and the People’s Republic of China as the greatest threats to mankind’s further development. These two states were the examples he had in mind when writing about “Asian despotism“. / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_August_Wittfogel


280.) Wolff, Hans Julius (1935-1936, 1939-1941, 1944) 1349 Wilmot, Ann Arbor, Mich. / Law

Roman Law an Historical Introduction by Hans Julius Wolff. / Demosthenes as Advocate: The Functions and Methods of Legal Consultants in Classical Athens / http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-927993-4.pdf / http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Julius_Wolff_(Rechtshistoriker)


281.) Wolff, Werner (1933-1935, 1939-1944) Bard College (NY) / Psychology

Werner Wolff (1904-1957) psychology, depth psychology, psychotherapy, Gestalt psychology, Gestalt theory / Bard College / Doctorate (1930) / “What is Psychology: A Basic Survey: By Werner Wolff. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1947 / Expression of Personality: Experimental Depth Psychology / “A scholarship given annually in memory of Dr. Werner Wolff, professor of psychology at Bard from 1942 to 1957, by his former students and awarded to a …” / The literature of Child Psychology has increased enormously since the…city asked if I would give a course on Child …” / Werner WOLFF publishes “Diagrams of the Unconscious: Handwriting and …” / “This was a landmark in the early history of industrial psychology. … Werner Wolff of Bard College was instrumental in forming the ISP. …” / “Values and personality; an existential psychology of crisis, by Werner Wolff / “THE PERSONALITY OF THE PRESCHOOL CHILD The Child’s Search for His Self. By WERNER WOLFF. PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY BARD COLLEGE …”


282.) Wollemborg, Leo J. (1939-1941) 375 Riverside Dr., NYC / History

Leo J. Wollemborg – wrote for ‘Council on Foreign Affairs’ / “Stars, Stripes and Italian Tricolor: United States and Italy, 1946-89 by Richard N. Gardner and Leo J. Wollemborg (Hardcover – 23 Mar 1990). from £30.00 …” AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR ÉMIGRÉS IN THE PROFESSIONS RECORDS, 1930-1974 (GER-017) / http://library.albany.edu/speccoll/findaids/ger017.htm


283.) Yakobson, Sergius (1933-1934, 1940-1944) Library of Congress / Philology

Sergius Yakobson (1901-??) papers: http://www.oac.cdlib.org/data/13030/t3/kt067nd9t3/files/kt067nd9t3.pdf

Overview of the Sergius Yakobson papers / Hoover Institution Archives / Stanford University – Stanford, California / Processed by: Hoover Institution Archives Staff / Abstract: Speeches and writings, correspondence, conference proceedings, bibliograhies, reports, and other printed matter, relating to Slavic studies, especially Soviet studies, in the United States. / Russian-American librarian; chief, Slavic and Central European Division, Library of Congress, 1951-1971.

Soviet Union Study and teaching / “Sergius Yakobson. Postwar Historical Research in the Soviet Union” / “Sergius Yakobson, archivists at the Preussisches Geheimes Staatsarchiv; and Veit Valentin, archivist at the Reichsarchiv. 12 Individuals who eventually came …”


284.) Zilsel, Edgar (1938-1944) Mills College / Philosophy

Edgar Zilsel (1891 in Vienna1944 in Oakland, US) was an Austrian historian and philosopher of science. / Although linked to the Vienna Circle, Zilsel wrote criticizing the views of Circle members. As a Jewish Marxist he was unable to follow an academic career in Austria. He participated actively in working people’s education, teaching philosophy and physics at the Vienna People’s University. From 1934 he taught mathematics and physics at a secondary school (Mittelschule) in Vienna. / As a philosopher, he combined Marxist views with the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle. He regularly published articles in academic as well as socialist journals. An extended version of his PhD thesis was published as a book (The Application Problem: a Philosophical Investigation of the Law of Large Numbers and its Induction). Two other books, ‘The Religion of Genius: A Critical Study of the Modern Ideal of Personality’ and ‘The Development of the Concept of Genius: a Contribution to the Conceptual History of Antiquity and Early Capitalism’ were published in 1918 and 1926 respectively.

Zilsel managed to escape from Austria after the Anschluss to the Third Reich, first to England and in 1939 to the United States where he received a Rockefeller Fellowship enabling him to devote time to research. He published many papers during these years of exile, the most famous of which is his ‘Sociological Roots of Modern Science’. In 1943 Zilsel was invited by Lynn White to teach physics at Mills College in California, but shortly thereafter committed suicide in his office with an overdose of sleeping pills.

Theses — Zilsel proposed The Zilsel Thesis as an explanation for the rise of Western science. Zilsel claims that the rise of capitalism led to the interaction of craftspeople with scholars. This interaction in turn led to the beginnings of early modern science. The craftspeople had been for the most part illiterate and looked down upon by the educated classes. The scholars were ignorant of practical craft activity. The intellectual theorizing of the crafts and the absorption of craft knowledge into the investigation of nature led to the development of experimental science. An example of this is William Gilbert‘s use of the mariner Robert Norman‘s practical knowledge of the compass to develop a theory of magnetism. Galileo‘s combination of mathematical theory and experimental practice was the culmination of this interpolation. / Another theory of Zilsel was that the rise of the notion of laws of nature in early modern science was a product of the generalization of the juridical concept of law to natural phenomena. Just as the king lays down the legal laws for the nation, God lays down the laws of nature for the universe. / Zilsel’s ideas were used by the historian of Chinese science, Joseph Needham to account for the lack of experimental science in traditional China despite the Chinese being in advance of the West in both technology and in many areas of natural history observation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Zilsel


285.) Zimmer, Heinrich Robert (1938-1943) Columbia / Philosophy

“Indian philosophy was at the heart of Zimmer’s interest in oriental studies…” Books by Heinrich Robert Zimmer: Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization / Philosophies of India / The King and the Corpse / The art of Indian Asia its mythology and transformations /Artistic Form and Yoga in the Sacred Images of India (Bollingen Series) / Yoga und Buddhismus. Indische Sphären. / THE ART OF INDIAN ASIA – VOLUME TWO : PLATES / the irish element in mediaeval culture / THE ART OF INDIAN ASIA – VOLUME ONE : TEXT /Die indische Weltmutter: Aufsatze /De Weg tot het Zelf – Leer en Leven van de indische heilige Sri Ramana… /Hindu Medicine (Johns Hopkins University Press Reprints) / Mitos y simbolos de la India/ Myths and Simbols of India (Spanish Edition) / Filosofie e religioni dell’India /Weisheit Indiens Märchen und Sinnbilder / The king and the corpse : tales of the soul’s conquest of evil / Keltische studien / De weg tot het Zelf : leer en leven van de Indische heilige Shri Ramana…


286.) Zondek, Bernard / Bernhard (1935-1941) Hebrew U / Gynecology

Bernhard Zondek (Hebrew: ברנרד צונדק) (born 1891, died 1966) was a German-Jewish gynecologist who developed the first reliable pregnancy test in 1928. / Bernhard Zondek was born in Wronke, Germany. He studied medicine in Berlin, graduating in 1919. He worked under Karl Franz at the university women’s clinic in Berlin Charité, where he specialized in obstetrics and gynecology. His older brother, Hermann Zondek, was a professor at University of Berlin and a pioneer of modern endocrinology.

Medical career – In 1926, he became ausserordentlicher professor, and in 1929, chief physician of the obstetrics and gynecology ward at the municipal hospital of Berlin-Spandau. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, he was dismissed from his posts. He left Germany for Stockholm. In 1940, he immigrated to Palestine, where he was appointed professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and head of obstetrics and gynecology at Hadassah Hospital. Medical discoveries – Zondek was one of the proponents of the inter-dependence of the endocrine glands under the control of the pituitary. His studies on pituitary-ovary interaction were instrumental in establishing this fundamental tenet. He discovered that the chorionic tissue of the placenta had endocrine capacity and this led to diagnostic techniques important for the recognition and treatment of hydatiform mole and chorionic carcinoma. / His work with the gynecologist Selmar Aschheim led to his bioassay for human chorionic gonadotropin, originally using mice, known as the Aschheim-Zondek or A-Z test. Later variations on this test used rabbits or amphibians, leading to the phrase “the rabbit died” to describe the discovery of a new pregnancy using the rabbit test. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernhard_Zondek


287.) Zygmund, Antoni (1939-1944) Mt. Holyoke / Mathematics

Antoni Zygmund (December 25, 1900May 30, 1992) was a Polish born American mathematician who exerted a major influence on 20th-century mathematics. / Born in Warsaw, Zygmund obtained his PhD from Warsaw University (1923) and became a professor at Stefan Batory University at Vilnius (1930–39). In 1940, during the World War II occupation of Poland, he emigrated to the United States and became a professor at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley. From 1945 until 1947 he was a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1947 at the University of Chicago.

He was a member of several scientific societies. From 1930 until 1952 he was a member of the Polish Society of Friends of Science (TNW), from 1946 a member of the Polish Academy of Learning (PAU), from 1959 a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), and from 1961 a member of the National Academy of Science in Washington, D.C.. In 1986 he received the National Medal of Science. / His main interest was harmonic analysis. He wrote a standard two-volume work Trigonometric Series. His students included Alberto Calderón, Paul Cohen, Nathan Fine and Elias Stein. He died in Chicago. / His work has had a pervasive influence in many fields of mathematics, particularly in mathematical analysis. He wrote over 6 books helping people solve equations. Perhaps most important was his work with Calderón on singular integral operators. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoni_Zygmund


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