Displaced Scholars

Jonas – Kaufmann

122.) Jonas, Oswald (1942-1944) Central YMCA College, Chicago / Musicology

Oswald Jonas, 1897-1978 * The Oswald Jonas memorial collection combines the papers of the Austrian music theorist Heinrich Schenker (1868-1935) with the papers of Oswald Jonas (1897-1978), a distinguished Schenker pupil and loyal disciple. Added to these are the papers of Moriz Violin (1879-1956), concert pianist and Schenker’s closest friend, including the monumental Schenker-Violin correspondence extending from 1896 to 1935. The total collection comprises about 75,000 leaves of manuscript largely unpublished, including music manuscripts, theoretical and analytical studies, critical essays, letters, Schenker’s Tagebücher kept over forty years (1896-1935), biographical materials and printed scores from Schenker’s working library, often heavily annotated. In addition there are books, pamphlets, periodical publications, corrected galley and page proofs, notebooks, drafts and fragments from Schenker’s work table, photographs and other memorabilia, together with related correspondence and research materials assembled by Jonas. http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf4j49n9zc/

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123.) Kahane, Henry Romanos (1937-1944) U of Illinois / Linguistics

Description: Papers of Henry Romanos Kahane (1902-92) and Renee Kahane (1907- ), professors of linguistics (1941-71), including correspondence, documents, manuscripts, notes, photographs, speeches, lectures, course materials, theses and dissertation, publications, reprints, and posters concerning their linguistic research, students, publications, honors, professional meetings, Greece, travels, emigration, family affairs, the Department of Spanish and Italian, and the Department of Linguistics. Research interests include Romance lexicology, Mediterranean lexicology, the Hellenistic and Byzantine heritage in the West, Venetian language, structural linguistics, literary history, dictionaries, and sociolinguistics. Significant correspondents include Angleina Pietrangeli, Thomas Mann, Gottfried Reinhardt, Hansjakob Seiler, Andreas Tietze, their children Charles and Roberta Kahane, and Kate Toole, Renee’s mother.

HENRY KAHANE Henry R. Kahane was born on November 2, 1902, in Berlin, Germany, ‘an Austrian in the German world’ (Kahane 1992b:40).* He was raised in the intellectually stimulating world of theatre and literature and it was there that he began his formal academic life with Literaturwissenschaft, gradually moving into Romance linguistics. Henry was drawn to linguistics, ‘attracted by the magnetic personality of Ernst Gamillscheg, a trail-blazing genius, who, up to his death in 1971, was inexhaustible in linguistic themes and explanations and, despite political flings, of an incorruptible professional objectivity’ (ibid.). Gamillscheg was to have a multifold impact on Henry’s life. It was in this professor’s seminar, in 1927, that Henry met Rene´e, ne´e Toole, of Irish ancestry born in Cephalonia, Ionian Island. It was through Rene´e’s influence that Henry developed his interest in Mediterranean studies. Two other European scholars who also left an indelible impact on Henry in relating language and history were Max Leopold Wagner (1880–1962) and Gerhard Rohlfs (1892–1986). The lives of Henry and Rene´e were a unique blend of harmony, mutual dedication, and utter devotion—they were an inseparable academic pair. What mattered above all was their commitment to their chosen scholarly fields. The two transmitted their intellectual earnestness and intense curiosity to their colleagues across disciplinary boundaries. The Kahanes’ lives revolved around room… http://www.library.illinois.edu/archives/archon/?p=collections/controlcard&id=2410

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124.) Kähler, Alfred (1934-1940) New School for Social Research / Economics

Alfred Kähler, 1900-1981

DR. ALFRED KAHLER, 81, IS DEAD; RETIRED NEW SCHOOL PROFESSOR
Published: September 18, 1981

Dr. Alfred Kahler, professor emeritus of economics of the New School for Social Research in Manhattan, died last Saturday in Little Rock, Ark., where he had gone to attend the wedding of a grandchild. He was 81 years old and lived in the Bronx.

Dr. Kahler was one of the first members of the New School’s University in Exile, which was established in the 1930’s by Dr. Alvin Johnson, the New School’s founder, for educators and artists fleeing Nazism.

He joined the New School’s Graduate Faculty in 1934, served as its dean in the early 1950’s and became professor emeritus in 1966. He continued to teach until 1974, when he retired.

Dr. Kahler, who earned his doctorate at the University of Kiel, was the author of ”The Displacement of Labor by the Machine,” and was co-author with Ernest Hamburger of ”Education for an Industrial Age .” He was co-author with Ernest Hamburger of ”Education for an Industrial Age .” He was co-editor with Hans Spier of ”War in Our Time.”kansas , and three grandchildren. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/09/18/obituaries/dr-alfred-kahler-81-is-dead-retired-new-school-professor.html

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125.) Kahn, Richard A. (1935-1936, 1940, 1941-1944) US Dept. of Interior / Economics & Public Administration

Defense Fisheries Administration / For Release January 18, 1951

DFA SETS UP Branch OF Economic FACILITIES

Appointment of Dr. Richard A. Kahn as acting chief of a newly established Banch of Economic Facilities in the Defense Fisheries Administration was announced today by Secretary of the Interior Oscar I. Chapman.

The new branch, according to Defense Fisheries Administrator Albert M. Day, will plan and initiate programs relating to the economic aspects of the fishery industries, such as allocation of fish landings, concentration of production insofar as required, and interpretation of control regulations. It will also exercise advisory functions for the staff and for other Government agencies on ceiling prices, rationing, and manpower.

Dr. Kahn has been Chief of the Economics and Cooperative Marketing Section, Branch of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service, since January 6, 1944. His new Duties will be somewhat similar to those he had durirg World War II when he was detailed from the Fish and Wildlife Service to tne Office of the Coordinator of Fisheries in Washington, D. S., to assist in handling manpower problems, deferments allocation and concentration orders, and matters related to the adjustment of ceiling prices then administered by the Office of Price Administration.

Prior to joining the Fish and Wildlife Service, Dr. Kahn was employed as an economist with the United States Railroad Retirement Board and the Office of Price Administration. Before entering Government service he held positions as an economist in industrial enterprises and trade associations. He also taught economics at several universities.

Dr. Kahn is married, has three sons, and lives at 3907 58th Avenue, Hyatsville, Maryland. http://www.fws.gov/news/historic/1951/19510118.pdf

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126.) Kallmann, Franz Josef (1936, 1939-1941, 1944) NY Psychiatric Inst., NYC / Psychiatry

 German-American psychiatrist and geneticist, born July 24, 1897, Silesia, Germany (now in Poland); died 1965, Columbia-Presbyterian medical centre, New York.

–On the track of “scientific pursuit”. Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) and genetic racial research

Franz Josef Kallmann was one of the first to study the genetic basis of psychiatric disorder. He spent most of his career in New York, where he pioneered the use of twin studies in the assessment of the relative roles of heredity and the environment in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease.

He was the son of a surgeon and general practitioner. He studied medicine at the University of Breslau, qualifying in 1919. Following graduation Kallmann decided to study psychiatry, a decision that may have been influenced by Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) who was one of his teachers. In the beginning he took an interest in criminology and forensic psychiatry, and his doctoral thesis was titled “Zufällige Stichverletzungen als Todesursache” (Breslau 1921).

He spent his internship at the Allerheiligen Hospital in Breslau. After a few years in private practice, he spent four years working at the psychiatric institute of the University of Berlin, where his mentor was the psychiatrist Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer (1868-1948). He also studied psychoanalysis at the Berlin Institute of Psychoanalysis and learned neuropathology as an assistant to Hans Gerhardt Creutzfeldt (1885-1964).

In 1929, Kallmann was made chief of the neuropathological laboratories of two mental hospitals in Berlin, and the same year accepted a position at the staff of the psychiatric research institute which had been founded in Munich by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), now called the Max Planck Institute. It was at this stage of his career that he developed his lifelong interest in the genetic basis of schizophrenia.

In Munich, Kallmann commenced familial studies in psychiatry. He has said that he conducted his first family study to prove that schizophrenia is an inheritable disorder. He had ha a rather dominant nanny who, every time he was to meet the family of a person who had fallen into schizophrenia, called him saying: “Doctor, that familial weakness is here”.

The enormously big study of the incidence of schizophrenia among siblings and children of persons with schizophrenia began here. Kallmann received valuable help from his wife Helly and other assistants to cope with this great work. In total he got together 13,851 persons, of whom 1,087 were test persons and were registered at the Herzberge-hospital in Berlin during the years 1893-1902. Persons who had fallen sick after the age of 40 were excluded to avoid dementias of recent debuts.

With the advent of the Nazi era in 1933, an exodus of anti-Nazi elite began. Kallmann was considered a Jew because his father was of Jewish stock but had converted to Christianity. He remained in Germany until 1936, when he moved to the USA and settled in New York. In this period he co-operated closely with the German Research Foundation for Psychiatry in Munich and its leader, Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) who helped Kallmann in leaving Germany and finding a job in USA. Rüdin’s assistant, Theobald Lang (1898-1957) delivered data-material from Munich to New York.

The Nazis made sterilisation of psychotic patients compulsory. This met with some resistance in the medical community, but like many researchers who fled Germany, even Jews, Kallmann did not disapprove of Nazi eugenic politics. In fact, he demanded an even more radical sterilization policy than the Nazis.

A German in America
Kallmann’s early years in America were difficult, but eventually he became chief of psychiatric research in medical genetics at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and head of medical genetics at the Columbia-Presbyterian medical centre.

In 1938 he published The Genetics of Schizophrenia, a book of almost 300 pages originally written as a treatise in Germany. Here he concluded that schizophrenia seems to be a recessive inheritable trait. The risk of falling sick with schizophrenia for the children of schizophrenic parents was 16,4 percent, compared to an incidence of 0,85 percent in an normal population. The mortality among patients, their children and siblings was considerably increased because of an increased mortality from suicide and tuberculosis.

Kallmann later did a study of twins in the USA demonstrating a 69 percent risk of an identical twin to fall sick if the other twin had the disease.

In 1943 he published a classical study of the weight of genetic predisposition for falling sick with tuberculosis.

In 1948, with some colleagues, Kallmann founded the American Society of Human Genetics, and American Journal of Human Genetics. However, for many years the society was rather small and it was hard to find members. Although his work made an impact amongst medical geneticists, many of his psychiatric colleagues rejected the notion that differences in human behaviour could have a genetic basis. This was to a large degree a consequence of the fact that it had become almost a tabu to discuss genetics and genetical advice after the Nazi war crimes. People feared a repetition. By and by, however, Kallmann succeeded in winning acceptance and received honorary awards for his work and his engagement in this field.

Kallmann was a very prolific writer. Most of his papers concerned the fields of psychiatry, above all schizophrenia, genetics and genetic counselling. In total he was co-writer of 176 papers and 49 book. At his death on May 12, 1965, he was president of American Psychopathological Association.

“Franz Kallmann was a many-sided person. He was a scientist in the broadest sense with a fertile imagination, a thorough knowledge of subject matter and method, a scanning interest in all human activity and the constant ability to frame richly suggestive hypotheses and to formulate careful research plans for their investigation. At the same time, he was always a good physician, a knower of men and a student of human fortitude and weakness, a family counsellor and a clinical psychiatrist in the noblest tradition.”
From a eulogy by his colleague John D. Rainer.
We thank Marten Spilok for information submitted. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2231.html

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127.) Kanitz, Ernst (1938-1945) Erksine College, S.C. / Music

 Ernst Kanitz was born April 9, 1894 in Vienna. Besides the study of law at the University of Vienna (J.D. 1918), Kanitz devoted himself to the systematic study of piano, theory and composition with R. Heuberger (1912-1914) and Franz Schreker (1914-1920). Early successes as composer [principally the premiere of the oratorio Das Hohelied (1921)] aided his musical career, which also led to teaching (since 1922 Professor of Theory and Analysis at the New Vienna Conservatory, numerous private students in composition). In 1930 Kanitz founded the Vienna Women’s Chorus, with which he brought new choral music to the public in Vienna, Paris, Brno and Budapest. The chorus remained in existence until Kanitz’ emigration to the United States in 1938. There he embarked on an extended teaching career, first at Winthrop College in Rock Hill and 1941-1944 as Head of the Music Department of Erskine College (both South Carolina) and also appeared as conductor of various women’s choruses and student orchestras.

In 1945 Kanitz was called to the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, where he taught composition and counterpoint until his retirement in 1959 (guest professor there 1960/1961). From 1961-1964 he taught at Marymount College in Palos Verdes, California; then he devoted himself exclusively to private teaching and composition, activities which were severely restricted in 1967 by diminishing vision. Kanitz died in Palo Alto, CA in 1978. http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/findingaids/kanitz/index.html

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128.) Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig (1933-1934, 1938-1944) U of California, Berkeley / History

 Ernst H[artwig] “Eka” Kantorowicz

Date born: 1895 Place Born: Posen (Prussia), modern Poznań, Poland * Date died: 1963 Place died: Princeton, NJ

Medievalist historian who employed iconography in the analysis of his important book, The King’s Two Bodies. Kantorowicz’ parents, Joseph Kantorowicz and Clara Hepner (Kantorowicz), were wealthy, non-practicing Jews, descended from the Bronfman liquor-distribution fortune of eastern Germany. Ernst Kantorowicz was raised among the socially prominent Junker aristocracy in Prussia, graduating from the Auguste Victoria Gymnasium in Poznań with extremely low marks. He started in the family business in 1913 until World War I was declared. Joining the German army, he was wounded at Verdun and later stationed in Turkey. A furlow allowed him to begin classes at the University in Berlin, but he returned to service. After the war he volunteered for several right-wing nationalist paramilitary organizations in Poland and Germany (Munich Freikorps). He moved to Heidelberg University. His dissertation, on oriental economic history, written under Eberhard Gothein (1853-1923), was accepted for his Ph.D. in 1921. Kantorowicz had become a member of the intellectual circle form around the German poet, art-magazine publisher and conservative nationalist Stefan George (1868-1933). He, Kantorowicz, had been assigned by ultra-Neitzschian George to write a popular (though thoroughly researched) biography of Frederick II in order to stir the German people during the muddled years of the Weimar Republic. At Heidelberg he met fellow medievalist Percy Ernst Schramm (q.v.). Like Schramm he studied under Heidelberg’s two major Geistesgeschichte medievalists, Karl Hampe (1869-1936) and Friedrich Baethgen (1890-1972). The result of his research was the two-volume Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite, published in 1927 with a red reverse swastika on the cover. The book was a popular success selling 10,000 copies in the first two years. Kantorowicz had no intention of an academic position, the book was to instead inspire the German people along Georgekreis lines. As such, it lacked footnotes. His detractors, particularly the University of Berlin professor Albert Brackmann (1871-1952) denounced him in 1929-1930 for Mythenschau (i.e., using myths to create a greater myth) and lacking Kleinarbeit (detailed research). That year Kantorowicz was appointed an honorary professor of medieval history (he was only 35) at Frankfurt. To quell continuing criticism of his book, Kantorowicz issued a third Ergänzungsband to his book, one solely of footnotes to his text in 1931. The same year the book appeared in English as Frederick the Second as well as in an Italian translation. He became a full professor at Frankfurt in 1932, following the death of Fedor Schneider (1879-1932). Kantorowicz began research on a book on theocratic kingship, Laudes regiae in 1934. However, though a supporter of the Nazi’s rise to power, his Jewish heritage force his chair from him because of the Nuremberg laws forbidding Jews to teach. He remained in Germany (Berlin) a friend of high-ranking Nazis like Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring (1893-1946). On the advice of the British classicist C. M. Bowra (1898-1971) Kantorowicz fled Germany, leaving his library and art collection, and accepted a postion at Oxford as a lecturer in 1938. The flamboyant scholar wrankled the conservative Oxford dons and he found a position as associate professor at the University of California Berkeley in 1940. Ironically it was to teach English constitutional history, a subject he knew little about. He rose to (full) professor at Berkeley in 1945. His book on theocratic kingship, Laudes regiae employing a new area of studies, political theology, i.e., how liturgy can be used to write history, finally appeared in as volume one in 1946. When the McCarthy-era Red Scare resulted in the California legistature requiring all University of California faculty to take a loyalty oath in 1949, Kantorowicz refused and was fired from Berkeley. He taught for a year at Dumbarton Oaks, Harvard’s medieval center near Washington, DC. In 1951 Erwin Panofsky (q.v.) urged J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967), director of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, to offer Kantorowicz an appointment. He became a member the same year. Kantorowicz completed his iconographic study, begun at Berkeley, The King’s Two Bodies appeared in 1957. He began experiencing health problems in 1960. He suffered an aneurism at age 68 and died at his home. After his death, Selected Studies was published in 1965.

Kantorowicz integrated art history (and a belief in dynamic personalities leading history) into medieval history. Initially lead by an intellectual vision of history (George and his circle) as large topics, his Frederick II book was written in a neo-Victorian mode with verve and eloquence, the “most exciting biography of a medieval monarch produced in this [i.e., twentieth] century” (Cantor). His The King’s Two Bodies uses symbolism and iconography to document the two roles a monarch served, mortal ruler and embodiment of the law. Interest in the book revived in the mid 1980s with translations in Italian, French, Spanish and German appearing in a five year span. http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/kantorowicze.htm

Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz
(18951963) was born in Posen (now Poznań, Poland) to a wealthy, assimilated German-Jewish family and as a young man was groomed to take over the family business (primarily liquor distilleries). / In 1933, Kantorowicz had to resign his university position due to Nazi racial policies. Upon leaving, he took up a teaching position for a short time at Oxford before moving to the University of California, Berkeley in 1939. After a controversy prompted by his reaction to McCarthyism (he refused to take a loyalty oath required of all UC employees), he moved to the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. / Kantorowicz was the subject of a controversial biographical sketch in the book Inventing the Middle Ages (1991) by the late American medievalist, Norman F. Cantor. Cantor, who knew Kantorowicz at Princeton, suggested that, but for his Jewish heritage, Kantorowicz (at least as a young scholar in the 1920s and 1930s) could be considered a Nazi in terms of his intellectual temperament and cultural values. Cantor compared Kantorowicz with another contemporary German medievalist, Percy Ernst Schramm, who worked on similar topics and was a member of the Nazi Party. Kantorowicz’s defenders (particularly his student Robert L. Benson) responded that although as a younger man Kantorowicz embraced the Romantic ultranationalism of the Georgekreis, he had only disdain for Nazism and was a vocal critic of Hitler’s regime. http://en.allexperts.com/e/e/er/ernst_kantorowicz.htm / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Kantorowicz / http://www.historicum.net/themen/klassiker-der-geschichtswissenschaft/20-jahrhundert/art/Kantorowicz_Er/html/artikel/2245/ca/2d2877a002/

“…Additionally, in 1922 the liberal statesman Count Kessler noted that what he had found most remarkable about an honorary celebration at the University of Berlin was the narrow-minded behavior of students and professors alike. Furthermore, it appears that both students and professors failed to hold many of the nation’s scholars accountable for the accuracy of their work. Many of the nations scholars preferred myth to fact and propagated legend as truth, especially biographers from the George Kreis such as: Ernst Kantorowicz and Emil Ludwig (49-51). “…it [Germany] had become the land where poets were elevated above thinkers, or, rather, where thinkers were converted into poets, much to the detriment of thinking.” http://ayjw.org/articles.php?id=599121

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129.) Kapp, Ernst (1937-1944) Columbia U. / Philology

This paper presents two outstanding classical scholars who were forced to leave Germany after Hitler’s seizure of power: Kurt von Fritz’s dismissal took place in 1935, Ernst Kapp lost his position in 1937. At this time, von Fritz already was appointed as Associate Professor at Columbia University. The focus of the paper will be a detailed reconstruction of Kapp’s desperate efforts to get a position in the U.S. Apart from his dependency on relief organizations’ financial aid, he fortunately could rely on the support of his former student and friend von Fritz, who helped him tirelessly to secure tenure and full professorship at Columbia in 1948. / “Kurt von Fritz and Ernst Kapp are special cases among these émigré scholars: unlike their Jewish colleagues, as “Aryans” they did not necessarily have to …” http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/classical_world/v101/101.2obermayer.html

Greek Foundations of Traditional Logic (Columbia Studies in Philosophy) by Ernst Kapp AMS Press, June 1942 Hardcover J. H. Rausse by Ernst Kapp Gesundheitsblatter-Verlag, 1849 Greek foundations of traditional logic. by Ernst Kapp AMS Press, 1967 Ausgewählte Schriffen by Ernst Kapp de Gruyter, 1968

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130.) Karsen, Fritz (1933-1934, 1937-1944) College of City of New York / Education

 KARSEN, FRITZ (1885–1951), educator. Born in Breslau, Germany, Karsen began his educational career in Berlin as a secondary school teacher. In 1920, at the national school conference he presented the Einheitsschule (unified primary school) idea, which aimed at the mixing of social classes. His major achievement during this period was the organization and direction, 1921–33, of a school complex (from kindergarten through secondary school), the Karl Marx School in Berlin-Neukoelln. He introduced various new procedures in these schools, such as individualized instruction, pupil government, and activity method. Karsen undertook study trips to the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. His plans for an elaboration of his school organization to include young people aged 18 to 19 were halted by the advent of the Nazis. In 1933 Karsen left Germany and settled permanently in New York, where he served as professor of German at City College and professor of education at Brooklyn College. From 1946 to 1948, Karsen served as higher education specialist in the U.S. military government in Germany. The recognition of his educational work in Germany was commemorated by the establishment of the Fritz Karsen School in Berlin. Karsen’s main writings include Die Schule der werdenden Gesellschaft (1921), Deutsche Versuchsschulen der Gegenwart und ihre Probleme (1923), and Die neue Schulen in Deutschland (1924), which he edited. He died in Guayaquil (Ecuador). http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0011_0_10790.html

The German specialist in education Fritz Karsen was consulted for the revision of the existent scheme and a new proposal which could promote the liberal interests of modernization. The new program insisted in the creation of a global university scheme, organized in departments integrated around five groups around the five Faculties which represented the principal areas of knowledge, bearing in mind the needs of a nation. These departments shared administrative and general academic and student services. / An international search for the professionals who could develop such an urbanistic and architectural project was called upon; the Architect Leopoldo Rother responded from Germany and came to work in the Office of Public Buildings from the Ministry of Public Works. There beside Fritz Karsen started working on the project, the Architect Alberto Wills Ferro was the director of the office at the ministry, and finally the project was presented to the president. http://www.archi.fr/UIA/ressourcesPDF/482_628.pdf

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131.) Katzenellenbogen, Adolf (1938-1941, 1944) Vassar / History of Art

Adolf Katzenellenbogen * Date born: 1901 Place born: Frankfurt am Main, Germany * Date died: 1964 Place died: Baltimore, MD

Medivalist, wrote important monograph on sculpture at Chartres. Katzenellenbogen (literally, “cat’s elbow” in German) was the son of the jurist and bank director Albert Katzenellenbogen (1863-1942) and Cornelia Josephine Doctor (1870-1941), both assimilated Jews. His parents, intent on him pursuing a business career, sent him to England to learn the language at an early age. In Frankfurt, he received his Abitur from the Goethe-Gymnasium in 1920. Katzenellenbogen studied Law at Giessen, 1920-1923, receiving his doctor of jurisprudence in 1924. Beginning in 1926, he pursued art history at the newly-established University in Hamburg under the outstanding “Hamburg school” art historians Erwin Panofsky (q.v.), Fritz Saxl (q.v.) and to a lesser extent, Charles de Tolnay (q.v.). His dissertation, written under Panofsky, was on medieval art. His Ph.D. was granted in 1933. He moved to Konstanz (Constance), Germany, the same year as a private teacher associate with the university, supported by his family. He married the Swiss native Grete Helene Reichert (d. 1987), in 1935, a pianist and town politician. During these years, Katzenellenbogen researched the influence of theology on medieval iconography, findings which would later become his book on medieval allegories. His liberal political affiliations and his “non-Aryan” status resulted in his 1938 interning at the Dachau concentration camp. His health seriously declined there. Through the intervention of the Swiss art collector Oskar Reinhart (1885-1965) in Winterthur, he was freed and brought to Switzerland. After convalescence, Katzenellenbogen emigrated to England in 1939. There he published the first of two important monographs on medieval iconography, Allegories of the Virtues and Viced in Medieval Art, under the auspices of the Warburg Institute. He next emigrated to the United States late the same year. Through the assistance of his dissertation advisor, Panofsky, already a professor in the U.S., and New York University professor Walter W. S. Cook (q.v.), he secured academic positions, beginning with Vassar College as a visiting lecturer in 1940. While in the U.S. he learned his father had perished in the extermination camp at Auschwitz in 1942. In 1943 he was appointed assistant professor at Vassar. Katzenellenbogen published a groundbreaking article on the influence of the Crusades in medieval iconography, “The Central Tympanum at Vézelay: Its Encyclopedic Meaning and Its Relation to the First Crusade,” in 1944. He came an American Citizen in 1946 and was promoted to associate professor in 1947. Katzenellenbogen was made (full) professor in 1953. With Panofsky he was a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ. After a visiting professorship at Smith, 1956-1958, he accepted the position as professor of Johns Hopkins Univeristy in 1958. The following year he published his important Sculptural Programs of Chartres Cathedral, which won the College Art Association’s Charles Rufus Morey award. He was a visiting professor at University of Freiberg in 1963. He died at age 63 after returning from an art conference in Germany. His M.A. students at Hopkins included the Dutch scholar Gary Schwartz (q.v.).

Katzenellenbogen was first an iconographer, trained by Panofsky and influenced by the French iconographer émile Mâle (q.v.). A “true heir to the Warburg [Institute] tradition” (Bober), he interwove theology and iconography into a blend of art analysis. Whitney Stoddard (q.v.) placed Katzenellenbogen in a straight continuum from the “father of modern [medieval] stylistic analysis” Wilhelm Vöge (q.v.) through the patterns-of-stylistic-transmission-theory of A. Kingsley Porter (q.v.), commenting that while both the former writers conclusions had been questioned, Katzenellenbogen’s would likely not. http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/katzenellenbogena.htm

See full size image <<< Edwin Katzenellenbogen:  ”Holocaust” Perpetrator / Sonderkommando / http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

Vassar Encyclopedia – “Distinguished Displaced Scholars * Following in the footsteps of his father, Henry Mitchell MacCracken, Chancellor of New York University, Henry Noble MacCracken, Vassar’s president from 1915 to 1946, worked in various ways for peaceful problem-solving and international understanding during his time at Vassar. Two seminal contributions to Vassar’s liberal arts education were two programs aiding established European scholars who sought refuge in the United States from Eastern European oppression in Poland in the twenties and from the Nazi holocaust in the thirties and forties. … Other noteworthy scholars and artists came to Vassar during this time. Ernst Krenek was composer in residence from 1939-42 and Adolph Katzenellenbogen, distinguished scholar of Chartres Cathedral, and his wife Elizabeth Katzenellenbogen, a master pianist whose speciality was Bela Bartok, were on the faculty until 1957. After leaving Vassar, Adolph Katzenellenbogen went to Johns Hopkins, as founding chairman of the Department of Fine Arts. Elisabeth continued her career as teacher and performer at nearby Goucher College. All told, some thirty or forty scholars came to Vassar to enrich its cultural life and enhance its teaching of languages, the arts, and philosophy.” http://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/faculty/prominent-faculty/distinguished-displaced-scholars.html

Jacob Billikopf was born in Vilna, Russia, in 1883, to Louis and Glika (Katzenelenbogen) Billikopf. He emigrated to the United States in 1896, where he lived in Richmond, Virginia with an older sister, Rebecca Billikopf Tatarsky.

Upon his arrival in the United States, Billikopf spoke no English. He began his schooling at age 13 when he entered had completed the eighth grade. He attended Richmond College and then transfered to the University of Chicago where he earned a Bachelor of Philanthropy degree (Ph.B.) in 1903. etc. http://www.americanjewisharchives.org/aja/FindingAids/Billikop.htm 

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132.) Kaufmann, Felix (1938-1944) New School for Social Research / Philosophy

 Felix Kaufmann, a philosopher who wrote on economic methodology, arrived in 1938. …”

Felix Kaufmann (1895, Vienna1949, New York) was an Austrian-American philosopher of law. / He studied jurisprudence and philosophy in Vienna. From 1922 to 1938 he was a Privatdozent there. During this time Kaufmann was associated with the Vienna Circle. He also wrote on the foundations of mathematics where, along with Hermann Weyl and Oskar Becker, he was attempting to apply the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl to constructive mathematics.

In 1938 the conditions for Jewish scholars became too hard, and he left for the USA. There he taught until his death as a law professor, in the Graduate Faculty of the New York School for Social Research. Kaufmann also aided fellow Austrian emigres in need of assistance during the pre-war years when the situation became dire for Jewish academics and scholars in Germany and Austria. Interceding on Karl Popper‘s behalf, Popper was offered academic hospitality at Cambridge University and a stipend of £150 for one year – this offer was transferable, and Friedrich Waismann took it up when Popper went to New Zealand instead (see John Watkins in Proceedings of the British Academy, 94, 645-684, 652). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Kaufmann

Works by Felix Kaufmann | PhilPapers “Works by Felix Kaufmann ( view other items matching `Felix Kaufmann` ). View all tips / No more tips. Tip: Search results and category listings are …” philpapers.org/autosense.pl?searchStr=Felix%20Kaufmann * Karl Popper – The Formative Years, 1902-1945: Politics and … “Viennese philosopher and social theorist Felix Kaufmann came to the rescue. He was a Privatdozent in the philosophy of law at the university, …” books.google.com/books?id=3VtHcYGp2pIC&pg=RA1-PA276&lpg=RA1-PA276&dq=Felix+Kaufmann+%2B+philosophy&source=bl&ots=KwzUBtzyfX&sig=2rcerbfqW_n3W0mu_xa9secpWw4&hl=en

 

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